Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4321-4332; doi:10.3390/ijerph9124321
Article

IL-22 mRNA Expression in Blood Samples as a Useful Biomarker for Assessing the Adverse Health Effects of PCBs on Allergic Children

1 Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616, USA 2 Department of Environmental Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyusyu 807-8555, Japan 3 Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 October 2012; in revised form: 15 November 2012 / Accepted: 20 November 2012 / Published: 27 November 2012
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Abstract: To facilitate the assessment of adverse effects of very low concentrations of air pollutants on general populations, we planned to establish a reliable biomarker that is also useful in identifying vulnerable populations. For this purpose we monitored several inflammation markers in blood samples from 2 year old Japanese children (N = 30), and found that those children living close to major highways (<50 m) show higher levels of mRNA expression IL-22 in their blood samples than those living further away (+50 m). This tendency was more pronounced among subjects showing positive IgE against egg and milk. We further examined association between IL-22 mRNA expression and PCB residues and found a number of significant positive correlations between each individual PCB congener and IL-22 expression. To identify the most vulnerable population among those children we selected asthma as a typical allergy-related disease, and could show that there are significant differences in the levels of IL-22 mRNA expression between IgE negative non-asthmatic subject and asthmatic children showing positive IgE reaction toward egg or milk, again. These observations support our main conclusion that IL-22 expression is a sensitive biomarker which is useful in identifying sub-populations of children who are especially vulnerable to air pollution.
Keywords: childhood allergy; biomarkers; environmental pollutants; IL-22; PCB

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tsuji, M.; Kawamoto, T.; Koriyama, C.; Matsumura, F. IL-22 mRNA Expression in Blood Samples as a Useful Biomarker for Assessing the Adverse Health Effects of PCBs on Allergic Children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 4321-4332.

AMA Style

Tsuji M, Kawamoto T, Koriyama C, Matsumura F. IL-22 mRNA Expression in Blood Samples as a Useful Biomarker for Assessing the Adverse Health Effects of PCBs on Allergic Children. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(12):4321-4332.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tsuji, Mayumi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Koriyama, Chihaya; Matsumura, Fumio. 2012. "IL-22 mRNA Expression in Blood Samples as a Useful Biomarker for Assessing the Adverse Health Effects of PCBs on Allergic Children." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 12: 4321-4332.

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