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Ecophysiological and Climatological Effects on Distribution of Vector Species and Malaria Incidence in India
Department of Human Behavior and Environment Sciences, Faculty of Human Sciences, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2012; in revised form: 29 November 2012 / Accepted: 10 December 2012 / Published: 18 December 2012
Abstract: The magnitude of regional malaria risk is dependent primarily on the dynamics and distribution of the vector species, which are determined mainly by climate conditions. A coupled model with ecophysiological and climatological factors was developed to estimate the spatiotemporal distribution of the five species of dominant malaria vectors in monsoon Asia. Here, we examined how the potential distribution obtained from the model could explain trends in malaria incidence observed in India, which has the highest number of confirmed cases of malaria in Asia. Most notably, there was a significant positive correlation between annual malaria incidences and the maximum generation number of vectors for each state (p < 0.001). Malaria incidence tended to increase exponentially as vector generation number increased. In addition, the interannual variation in observed regional malaria incidences was synchronized with that of the potential number of vector generations. The observed seasonal peak of malaria incidences corresponded closely to the simulated appearance period of vector species, except for intensively irrigated areas that experience anthropogenic impacts on hydrologic conditions. Simulated vector distributions effectively expressed spatial and temporal prevalence of malaria in India. This novel approach to modeling based on vector ecology is an effective method for assessing malaria risk.
Keywords: Anopheles; malaria incidence; coupled model; vector ecology; ecophysiology; climate factors
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kaga, T.; Ohta, S. Ecophysiological and Climatological Effects on Distribution of Vector Species and Malaria Incidence in India. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 4704-4714.
Kaga T, Ohta S. Ecophysiological and Climatological Effects on Distribution of Vector Species and Malaria Incidence in India. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012; 9(12):4704-4714.
Kaga, Takumi; Ohta, Shunji. 2012. "Ecophysiological and Climatological Effects on Distribution of Vector Species and Malaria Incidence in India." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 9, no. 12: 4704-4714.