Next Article in Journal
North American Wetlands and Mosquito Control
Previous Article in Journal
Simulation of Water Environmental Capacity and Pollution Load Reduction Using QUAL2K for Water Environmental Management
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9(12), 4522-4536; doi:10.3390/ijerph9124522
Article

Association between Hypertension and Chronic Arsenic Exposure in Drinking Water: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh

1
,
2
,
1
,
3
,
1
,
1
,
4
,
5
,
6
,
7
 and
1,*
Received: 12 October 2012 / Revised: 27 November 2012 / Accepted: 29 November 2012 / Published: 7 December 2012
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [232 KB, 19 June 2014; original version 19 June 2014]

Abstract

Chronic arsenic exposure and its association with hypertension in adults are inconclusive and this cross-sectional study investigated the association. The study was conducted between January and July 2009 among 1,004 participants from 1,682 eligible women and men aged ≥30 years living in rural Bangladesh who had continuously consumed arsenic-contaminated drinking water for at least 6 months. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (systolic hypertension) and diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg (diastolic hypertension). Pulse pressure was calculated by deducting diastolic from systolic pressure and considered to be increased when the difference was ≥55 mmHg. The prevalence of hypertension was 6.6% (95% CI: 5.1–8.3%). After adjustment for other factors, no excess risk of hypertension was observed for arsenic exposure >50μg/L or to that of arsenic exposure as quartiles or as duration. Arsenic concentration as quartiles and >50 μg/L did show a strong relationship with increased pulse pressure (adjusted OR: 3.54, 95% CI: 1.46–8.57), as did arsenic exposure for ≥10 years (adjusted OR: 5.25, 95% CI: 1.41–19.51). Arsenic as quartiles showed a dose response relationship with increased pulse pressure. Our study suggests an association between higher drinking water arsenic or duration and pulse pressure, but not hypertension.
Keywords: arsenic; drinking-water; hypertension; pulse-pressure; Bangladesh arsenic; drinking-water; hypertension; pulse-pressure; Bangladesh
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Islam, M.R.; Khan, I.; Attia, J.; Hassan, S.M.N.; McEvoy, M.; D'Este, C.; Azim, S.; Akhter, A.; Akter, S.; Shahidullah, S.M.; Milton, A.H. Association between Hypertension and Chronic Arsenic Exposure in Drinking Water: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2012, 9, 4522-4536.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert