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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 7, Issue 9 (September 2010), Pages 3313-3560

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Characterization and Cytotoxic Assessment of Ballistic Aerosol Particulates for Tungsten Alloy Penetrators into Steel Target Plates
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3313-3331; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093313
Received: 10 July 2010 / Revised: 24 August 2010 / Accepted: 25 August 2010 / Published: 26 August 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The nature and constituents of ballistic aerosol created by kinetic energy penetrator rods of tungsten heavy alloys (W-Fe-Ni and W-Fe-Co) perforating steel target plates was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These aerosol regimes, which can occur in closed, armored military [...] Read more.
The nature and constituents of ballistic aerosol created by kinetic energy penetrator rods of tungsten heavy alloys (W-Fe-Ni and W-Fe-Co) perforating steel target plates was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These aerosol regimes, which can occur in closed, armored military vehicle penetration, are of concern for potential health effects, especially as a consequence of being inhaled. In a controlled volume containing 10 equispaced steel target plates, particulates were systematically collected onto special filters. Filter collections were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) which included energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry (EDS). Dark-field TEM identified a significant nanoparticle concentration while EDS in the SEM identified the propensity of mass fraction particulates to consist of Fe and FeO, representing target erosion and formation of an accumulating debris field. Direct exposure of human epithelial cells (A549), a model for lung tissue, to particulates (especially nanoparticulates) collected on individual filters demonstrated induction of rapid and global cell death to the extent that production of inflammatory cytokines was entirely inhibited. These observations along with comparisons of a wide range of other nanoparticulate species exhibiting cell death in A549 culture may suggest severe human toxicity potential for inhaled ballistic aerosol, but the complexity of the aerosol (particulate) mix has not yet allowed any particular chemical composition to be identified. Full article
Open AccessArticle An Examination of the Association of Selected Toxic Metals with Total and Central Obesity Indices: NHANES 99-02
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3332-3347; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093332
Received: 15 July 2010 / Revised: 9 August 2010 / Accepted: 23 August 2010 / Published: 26 August 2010
Cited by 29 | PDF Full-text (157 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent [...] Read more.
It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten). Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium), and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead). Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings. Full article
Open AccessArticle Modified Perfluorocarbon Tracer Method for Measuring Effective Multizone Air Exchange Rates
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3348-3358; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093348
Received: 15 July 2010 / Revised: 9 August 2010 / Accepted: 23 August 2010 / Published: 27 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (232 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A modified procedure was developed for the measurement of the effective air exchange rate, which represents the relationship between the pollutants emitted from indoor sources and the residents’ level of exposure, by placing the dosers of tracer gas at locations that resemble [...] Read more.
A modified procedure was developed for the measurement of the effective air exchange rate, which represents the relationship between the pollutants emitted from indoor sources and the residents’ level of exposure, by placing the dosers of tracer gas at locations that resemble indoor emission sources. To measure the 24-h-average effective air exchange rates in future surveys based on this procedure, a low-cost, easy-to-use perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) doser with a stable dosing rate was developed by using double glass vials, a needle, a polyethylene-sintered filter, and a diffusion tube. Carbon molecular sieve cartridges and carbon disulfide (CS2) were used for passive sampling and extraction of the tracer gas, respectively. Recovery efficiencies, sampling rates, and lower detection limits for 24-h sampling of hexafluorobenzene, octafluorotoluene, and perfluoroallylbenzene were 40% ± 3%, 72% ± 5%, and 84% ± 6%; 10.5 ± 1.1, 14.4 ± 1.4, and 12.2 ± 0.49 mL min−1; and 0.20, 0.17, and 0.26 μg m–3, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Pollution and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Attractive "Quiet" Courtyards: A Potential Modifier of Urban Residents' Responses to Road Traffic Noise?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3359-3375; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093359
Received: 20 July 2010 / Revised: 18 August 2010 / Accepted: 25 August 2010 / Published: 30 August 2010
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present paper explores the influence of the physical environmental qualities of “quiet” courtyards (degree of naturalness and utilization) on residents’ noise responses. A questionnaire study was conducted in urban residential areas with road-traffic noise exposure between LAeq,24h 58 to 68 [...] Read more.
The present paper explores the influence of the physical environmental qualities of “quiet” courtyards (degree of naturalness and utilization) on residents’ noise responses. A questionnaire study was conducted in urban residential areas with road-traffic noise exposure between LAeq,24h 58 to 68 dB at the most exposed façade. The dwellings had “quiet” indoor section/s and faced a “quiet” outdoor courtyard (LAeq,24h < 48 dB façade reflex included). Data were collected from 385 residents and four groups were formed based on sound-level categories (58–62 and 63–68 dB) and classification of the “quiet” courtyards into groups with low and high physical environmental quality. At both sound-level categories, the results indicate that access to high-quality “quiet” courtyards is associated with less noise annoyance and noise-disturbed outdoor activities among the residents. Compared to low-quality “quiet” courtyards, high-quality courtyards can function as an attractive restorative environment providing residents with a positive soundscape, opportunities for rest, relaxation and play as well as social relations that potentially reduce the adverse effects of noise. However, access to quietness and a high-quality courtyard can only compensate partly for high sound levels at façades facing the streets, thus, 16% and 29% were still noise annoyed at 58–62 and 63–68 dB, respectively. Implications of the “quiet”-side concept are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noise and Quality of Life)
Open AccessArticle Different Length (DL) qPCR for Quantification of Cell Killing by UV-induced DNA Damage
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3376-3381; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093376
Received: 20 July 2010 / Revised: 3 August 2010 / Accepted: 25 August 2010 / Published: 31 August 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (146 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe the different length (DL) qPCR method for quantification of UV induced DNA damage in cell killing. The principle of DL qPCR is that DNA damage inhibits PCR. Applications with different lengths can therefore be used to detect different levels of [...] Read more.
We describe the different length (DL) qPCR method for quantification of UV induced DNA damage in cell killing. The principle of DL qPCR is that DNA damage inhibits PCR. Applications with different lengths can therefore be used to detect different levels of UV-induced DNA damage. The assay was evaluated on three strains of Escherichia coli exposed to varying levels of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. We show that DL qPCR sensitivity and reproducibility are within the range of practical application to detect the effect of UV cell killing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health)
Open AccessArticle Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3382-3405; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093382
Received: 16 July 2010 / Revised: 26 August 2010 / Accepted: 26 August 2010 / Published: 31 August 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (665 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. [...] Read more.
In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noise and Quality of Life)
Open AccessArticle Human Blood Concentrations of Cotinine, a Biomonitoring Marker for Tobacco Smoke, Extrapolated from Nicotine Metabolism in Rats and Humans and Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3406-3421; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093406
Received: 20 July 2010 / Revised: 20 August 2010 / Accepted: 31 August 2010 / Published: 1 September 2010
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (249 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, [...] Read more.
The present study defined a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for nicotine and its primary metabolite cotinine in humans, based on metabolic parameters determined in vitro using relevant liver microsomes, coefficients derived in silico, physiological parameters derived from the literature, and an established rat PBPK model. The model consists of an absorption compartment, a metabolizing compartment, and a central compartment for nicotine and three equivalent compartments for cotinine. Evaluation of a rat model was performed by making comparisons with predicted concentrations in blood and in vivo experimental pharmacokinetic values obtained from rats after oral treatment with nicotine (1.0 mg/kg, a no-observed-adverse-effect level) for 14 days. Elimination rates of nicotine in vitro were established from data from rat liver microsomes and from human pooled liver microsomes. Human biomonitoring data (17 ng nicotine and 150 ng cotinine per mL plasma 1 h after smoking) from pooled five male Japanese smokers (daily intake of 43 mg nicotine by smoking) revealed that these blood concentrations could be calculated using a human PBPK model. These results indicate that a simplified PBPK model for nicotine/cotinine is useful for a forward dosimetry approach in humans and for estimating blood concentrations of other related compounds resulting from exposure to low chemical doses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Removal of Indicator Bacteria from Domestic Sludge Processed by Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3422-3441; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093422
Received: 17 July 2010 / Revised: 27 August 2010 / Accepted: 31 August 2010 / Published: 2 September 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (222 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) processing results in auto-heating, thermal treatment and total solids reduction, however, the ability to eliminate pathogenic organisms has not been analysed under large scale process conditions. We [...] Read more.
The degradation of sludge solids in an insulated reactor during Autothermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion (ATAD) processing results in auto-heating, thermal treatment and total solids reduction, however, the ability to eliminate pathogenic organisms has not been analysed under large scale process conditions. We evaluated the ATAD process over a period of one year in a two stage, full scale Irish ATAD plant established in Killarney and treating mixed primary and secondary sludge, by examining the sludge microbiologically at various stages during and following ATAD processing to determine its ability to eliminate indicator organisms. Salmonella spp. (pathogen) and fecal-coliform (indicator) densities were well below the limits used to validate class A biosolids in the final product. Enteric pathogens present at inlet were deactivated during the ATAD process and were not detected in the final product using both traditional microbial culture and molecular phylogenetic techniques. A high DNase activity was detected in the bulk sludge during the thermophilic digestion stage which may be responsible for the rapid turn over of DNA from lysed cells and the removal of mobile DNA. These results offer assurance for the safe use of ATAD sludge as a soil supplement following processing. Full article
Open AccessArticle Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3442-3456; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093442
Received: 16 July 2010 / Revised: 1 September 2010 / Accepted: 2 September 2010 / Published: 6 September 2010
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in [...] Read more.
In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved. Full article
Open AccessArticle Associations between Chronic Community Noise Exposure and Blood Pressure at Rest and during Acute Noise and Non-Noise Stressors among Urban School Children in India
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3457-3466; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093457
Received: 31 July 2010 / Revised: 2 September 2010 / Accepted: 14 September 2010 / Published: 15 September 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (158 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study builds on prior research that has examined the association between children’s chronic exposure to community noise and resting blood pressure and blood pressure dysregulation during exposure to acute stressors. A novel contribution of the study is that it examines [...] Read more.
The present study builds on prior research that has examined the association between children’s chronic exposure to community noise and resting blood pressure and blood pressure dysregulation during exposure to acute stressors. A novel contribution of the study is that it examines how chronic noise exposure relates to blood pressure responses during exposure to both noise and non-noise acute stressors. The acute noise stressor was recorded street noise and the non-noise stressor was mental arithmetic. The sample consisted of 189 3rd and 6th grade children (51.9% percent boys; 52.9% 3rd graders) from a noisy (n = 95) or relatively quiet (n = 94) public school in the city of Pune, India. There were no statistically significant differences between chronic noise levels and resting blood pressure levels. However, relative to quiet-school children, noisy-school children had significantly lower increases in blood pressure when exposed to either an acute noise or non-noise stressor. This finding suggests that chronic noise exposure may result in hypo-reactivity to a variety of stressors and not just habituation to noise stressors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noise and Quality of Life)
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Open AccessArticle Levels of Reconstruction as Complementarity in Mixed Methods Research: A Social Theory-Based Conceptual Framework for Integrating Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3478-3488; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093478
Received: 11 August 2010 / Revised: 9 September 2010 / Accepted: 10 September 2010 / Published: 16 September 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (159 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Like other areas of health research, there has been increasing use of qualitative methods to study public health problems such as injuries and injury prevention. Likewise, the integration of qualitative and quantitative research (mixed-methods) is beginning to assume a more prominent role [...] Read more.
Like other areas of health research, there has been increasing use of qualitative methods to study public health problems such as injuries and injury prevention. Likewise, the integration of qualitative and quantitative research (mixed-methods) is beginning to assume a more prominent role in public health studies. Likewise, using mixed-methods has great potential for gaining a broad and comprehensive understanding of injuries and their prevention. However, qualitative and quantitative research methods are based on two inherently different paradigms, and their integration requires a conceptual framework that permits the unity of these two methods. We present a theory-driven framework for viewing qualitative and quantitative research, which enables us to integrate them in a conceptually sound and useful manner. This framework has its foundation within the philosophical concept of complementarity, as espoused in the physical and social sciences, and draws on Bergson’s metaphysical work on the ‘ways of knowing’. Through understanding how data are constructed and reconstructed, and the different levels of meaning that can be ascribed to qualitative and quantitative findings, we can use a mixed-methods approach to gain a conceptually sound, holistic knowledge about injury phenomena that will enhance our development of relevant and successful interventions. Full article
Open AccessArticle Acetaldehyde Removal from Indoor Air through Chemical Absorption Using L-Cysteine
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3489-3498; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093489
Received: 1 August 2010 / Revised: 31 August 2010 / Accepted: 14 September 2010 / Published: 17 September 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (280 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The irreversible removal of acetaldehyde from indoor air via a chemical reaction with amino acids was investigated. To compare effectiveness, five types of amino acid (glycine, L-lysine, L-methionine, L-cysteine, and L-cystine) were used as the reactants. First, acetaldehyde-laden air was introduced into [...] Read more.
The irreversible removal of acetaldehyde from indoor air via a chemical reaction with amino acids was investigated. To compare effectiveness, five types of amino acid (glycine, L-lysine, L-methionine, L-cysteine, and L-cystine) were used as the reactants. First, acetaldehyde-laden air was introduced into aqueous solutions of each amino acid and the removal abilities were compared. Among the five amino acids, L-cysteine solution showed much higher removal efficiency, while the other amino acids solutions didn’t show any significant differences from the removal efficiency of water used as a control. Next, as a test of the removal abilities of acetaldehyde by semi-solid L-cysteine, a gel containing L-cysteine solution was put in a fluororesin bag filled with acetaldehyde gas, and the change of acetaldehyde concentration was measured. The L-cysteine-containing gel removed 80% of the acetaldehyde in the air within 24 hours. The removal ability likely depended on the unique reaction whereby acetaldehyde and L-cysteine rapidly produce 2-methylthiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. These results suggested that the reaction between acetaldehyde and L-cysteine has possibilities for irreversibly removing toxic acetaldehyde from indoor air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Pollution and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Aging Images as a Motivational Trigger for Smoking Cessation in Young Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3499-3512; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093499
Received: 26 July 2010 / Revised: 13 September 2010 / Accepted: 15 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (235 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recruiting adolescents into smoking cessation programs has been challenging, and there is a lack of effective smoking cessation interventions for this age group. We aimed to assess whether the approach of using aging images can be used to recruit young, female smokers [...] Read more.
Recruiting adolescents into smoking cessation programs has been challenging, and there is a lack of effective smoking cessation interventions for this age group. We aimed to assess whether the approach of using aging images can be used to recruit young, female smokers for a smoking cessation course. In this study, 853 14- to 18-year-old subjects were photographed (2006–2007). After software-aided aging, the images evoked strong emotions, especially in subjects with an advanced motivational stage to quit. Twenty-four percent of current smokers reported that the aging images increased their motivation to quit smoking (pre-contemplation: 8%; contemplation: 32%; and preparation: 71%). In multivariate analyses, the aged images had a high motivational impact to quit smoking that was associated with an increased readiness to stop smoking and the individual’s assessment of the aging images as shocking, but not with the number of previous attempts to quit and the assessment of the pictures as realistic. However, it was not possible to recruit the study population for a smoking cessation course. We concluded that aging images are a promising intervention for reaching young women and increasing their motivation to stop smoking. However, smoking cessation courses may not be appropriate for this age group: none of the recruits agreed to take a cessation course. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Laboratory and Field Remote Sensing Methods to Measure Forage Quality
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3513-3530; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093513
Received: 5 August 2010 / Accepted: 16 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (826 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent research in range ecology has emphasized the importance of forage quality as a key indicator of rangeland condition. However, we lack tools to evaluate forage quality at scales appropriate for management. Using canopy reflectance data to measure forage quality has been [...] Read more.
Recent research in range ecology has emphasized the importance of forage quality as a key indicator of rangeland condition. However, we lack tools to evaluate forage quality at scales appropriate for management. Using canopy reflectance data to measure forage quality has been conducted at both laboratory and field levels separately, but little work has been conducted to evaluate these methods simultaneously. The objective of this study is to find a reliable way of assessing grassland quality through measuring forage chemistry with reflectance. We studied a mixed grass ecosystem in Grasslands National Park of Canada and surrounding pastures, located in southern Saskatchewan. Spectral reflectance was collected at both in-situ field level and in the laboratory. Vegetation samples were collected at each site, sorted into the green grass portion, and then sent to a chemical company for measuring forage quality variables, including protein, lignin, ash, moisture at 135 ºC, Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF), Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF), Total Digestible, Digestible Energy, Net Energy for Lactation, Net Energy for Maintenance, and Net Energy for Gain. Reflectance data were processed with the first derivative transformation and continuum removal method. Correlation analysis was conducted on spectral and forage quality variables. A regression model was further built to investigate the possibility of using canopy spectral measurements to predict the grassland quality. Results indicated that field level prediction of protein of mixed grass species was possible (r2 = 0.63). However, the relationship between canopy reflectance and the other forage quality variables was not strong. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Sensor Networks)
Open AccessArticle Is Malnutrition Associated with Crowding in Permanent Dentition?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3531-3544; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093531
Received: 6 August 2010 / Accepted: 19 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (130 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Evidence suggests that energy-protein malnutrition is associated with impaired growth and development of facial bones. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between nutritional status and reduced space for dental eruption (crowding) in permanent dentition. A cross-sectional study with probabilistic sampling design was used. We evaluated 2,060 students aged 12 to 15 years enrolled in schools in the northeast of Brazil. Crowding was defined according to World Health Organization (WHO) as misalignment of teeth due to lack of space for them to erupt in the correct position. Nutritional status was evaluated by means of body mass index and height-for-age, using the WHO’s reference curves. Parents and adolescents responded to a questionnaire about demographic, socioeconomic, biological and behavioral characteristics. The associations were estimated by odds ratio (OR) in multivariate logistic regression analysis (alpha = 0.05). Confounding and effect-modification were taken into account. An association between low height-for-age (z-score < –1SD) and crowding was only observed in adolescents with a prolonged history of mouth breathing (OR = 3.1). No association was observed between underweight and crowding. Malnutrition is related to crowding in permanent dentition among mouth-breathing adolescents. Policy actions aimed at reducing low height-for-age and unhealthy oral habits are strongly recommended. However, further studies are needed to increase the consistency of these findings and improve understanding of the subject. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Malnutrition and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Time-series MODIS Image-based Retrieval and Distribution Analysis of Total Suspended Matter Concentrations in Lake Taihu (China)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3545-3560; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093545
Received: 24 August 2010 / Revised: 17 September 2010 / Accepted: 18 September 2010 / Published: 27 September 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (1196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although there has been considerable effort to use remotely sensed images to provide synoptic maps of total suspended matter (TSM), there are limited studies on universal TSM retrieval models. In this paper, we have developed a TSM retrieval model for Lake Taihu [...] Read more.
Although there has been considerable effort to use remotely sensed images to provide synoptic maps of total suspended matter (TSM), there are limited studies on universal TSM retrieval models. In this paper, we have developed a TSM retrieval model for Lake Taihu using TSM concentrations measured in situ and a time series of quasi-synchronous MODIS 250 m images from 2005. After simple geometric and atmospheric correction, we found a significant relationship (R = 0.8736, N = 166) between in situ measured TSM concentrations and MODIS band normalization difference of band 3 and band 1. From this, we retrieved TSM concentrations in eight regions of Lake Taihu in 2007 and analyzed the characteristic distribution and variation of TSM. Synoptic maps of model-estimated TSM of 2007 showed clear geographical and seasonal variations. TSM in Central Lake and Southern Lakeshore were consistently higher than in other regions, while TSM in East Taihu was generally the lowest among the regions throughout the year. Furthermore, a wide range of TSM concentrations appeared from winter to summer. TSM in winter could be several times that in summer. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Research into Mercury Exposure and Health Education in Subsistence Fish-Eating Communities of the Amazon Basin: Potential Effects on Public Health Policy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(9), 3467-3477; doi:10.3390/ijerph7093467
Received: 2 August 2010 / Revised: 30 August 2010 / Accepted: 10 September 2010 / Published: 16 September 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The neurotoxic effects of fish-methylmercury (meHg) consumed regularly are considered hazardous to fetuses and newborn infants; as a result fish consumption advisories are an important asset to control meHg exposure in affluent societies. These concerns are now part of health promotion programs [...] Read more.
The neurotoxic effects of fish-methylmercury (meHg) consumed regularly are considered hazardous to fetuses and newborn infants; as a result fish consumption advisories are an important asset to control meHg exposure in affluent societies. These concerns are now part of health promotion programs for Amazon subsistence villagers. While urban dwellers in affluent societies can choose an alternative nutritious diet, traditional and subsistence communities are caught up in controversial issues and lifestyle changes with unintended health consequences. Traditional fish-eating populations of industrialized and non-industrialized regions may be exposed to different neurotoxic substances: man-made pollutants and environmentally occurring meHg. Additionally, in non-industrialized countries, pregnant women and infants are still being immunized with thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCVs) which degrade to ethylmercury (etHg). Therefore, the complexity involving fish-meHg associated with wild-fish choices and Hg exposure derived from TCVs is difficult to disentangle and evaluate: are villagers able to distinguish exposure to differently hazardous chemical forms of Hg (inorganic, fish-meHg, and injected etHg)? Is it possible that instead of helping to prevent a plausible (unperceived) fish-meHg associated neurocognitive delay we may inadvertently arouse panic surrounding Hg exposure and disrupt subsistence fish-eating habits (necessary for survival) and life-saving vaccination programs (required by public health authorities)? These questions characterize the incompleteness of information related on the various chemical forms of Hg exposure and the need to convey messages that do not disrupt nutritional balance and disease prevention policies directed at Amazonian subsistence communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomarkers: Environmental Research and Public Health)

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