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Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake
Department of Agriculture–Farming Systems, Technology and Product Quality, Faculty of Landscape Planning, Horticulture and Agriculture Science, The Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 104, SE-23053 Alnarp, Sweden
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2010; in revised form: 1 September 2010 / Accepted: 2 September 2010 / Published: 6 September 2010
Abstract: In this study, 321 winter and spring wheat genotypes were analysed for twelve nutritionally important minerals (B, Cu, Fe, Se, Mg, Zn, Ca, Mn, Mo, P, S and K). Some of the genotypes used were from multiple locations and years, resulting in a total number of 493 samples. Investigated genotypes were divided into six genotype groups i.e., selections, old landraces, primitive wheat, spelt, old cultivars and cultivars. For some of the investigated minerals higher concentrations were observed in selections, primitive wheat, and old cultivars as compared to more modern wheat material, e.g., cultivars and spelt wheat. Location was found to have a significant effect on mineral concentration for all genotype groups, although for primitive wheat, genotype had a higher impact than location. Spring wheat was observed to have significantly higher values for B, Cu, Fe, Zn, Ca, S and K as compared to winter wheat. Higher levels of several minerals were observed in the present study, as compared to previous studies carried out in inorganic systems, indicating that organic conditions with suitable genotypes may enhance mineral concentration in wheat grain. This study also showed that a very high mineral concentration, close to daily requirements, can be produced by growing specific primitive wheat genotypes in an organic farming system. Thus, by selecting genotypes for further breeding, nutritional value of the wheat flour for human consumption can be improved.
Keywords: organic genotypes; minerals; locations; spring and winter wheat; concentrations; food requirements
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Hussain, A.; Larsson, H.; Kuktaite, R.; Johansson, E. Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 3442-3456.
Hussain A, Larsson H, Kuktaite R, Johansson E. Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(9):3442-3456.
Hussain, Abrar; Larsson, Hans; Kuktaite, Ramune; Johansson, Eva. 2010. "Mineral Composition of Organically Grown Wheat Genotypes: Contribution to Daily Minerals Intake." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 9: 3442-3456.