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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 7, Issue 8 (August 2010), Pages 3006-3312

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Micro Data Analysis of Medical and Long-Term Care Utilization Among the Elderly in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3022-3037; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083022
Received: 28 June 2010 / Revised: 23 July 2010 / Accepted: 27 July 2010 / Published: 30 July 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (303 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Japan is currently experiencing the most rapid population aging among all OECD countries. Increasing expenditures on medical care in Japan have been attributed to the aging of the population. Authors in the recent debate on end-of-life care and long-term care (LTC) cost in
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Japan is currently experiencing the most rapid population aging among all OECD countries. Increasing expenditures on medical care in Japan have been attributed to the aging of the population. Authors in the recent debate on end-of-life care and long-term care (LTC) cost in the United States and Europe have attributed time to death and non-medical care cost for the aged as a source of rising expenditures. In this study, we analyzed a large sample of local public insurance claim data to investigate medical and LTC expenditures in Japan. We examined the impact of aging, time to death, survivorship, and use of LTC on medical care expenditure for people aged 65 and above. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that age is a contributing factor to the rising expenditures on LTC, and that the contribution of aging to rising medical care expenditures should be distinguished according to survivorship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle Evaporative Gasoline Emissions and Asthma Symptoms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3051-3062; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083051
Received: 18 June 2010 / Revised: 25 July 2010 / Accepted: 29 July 2010 / Published: 4 August 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of
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Attached garages are known to be associated with indoor air volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study looked at indoor exposure to VOCs presumably from evaporative emissions of gasoline. Alaskan gasoline contains 5% benzene making benzene a marker for gasoline exposure. A survey of randomly chosen houses with attached garages was done in Anchorage Alaska to determine the exposure and assess respiratory health. Householders were asked to complete a health survey for each person and a household survey. They monitored indoor air in their primary living space for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes for one week using passive organic vapor monitoring badges. Benzene levels in homes ranged from undetectable to 58 parts per billion. The median benzene level in 509 homes tested was 2.96 ppb. Elevated benzene levels in the home were strongly associated with small engines and gasoline stored in the garage. High concentrations of benzene in gasoline increase indoor air levels of benzene in residences with attached garages exposing people to benzene at levels above ATSDR’s minimal risk level. Residents reported more severe symptoms of asthma in the homes with high gasoline exposure (16%) where benzene levels exceeded the 9 ppb. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Pollution and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Promotion of Physical Activity Using Point-of-Decision Prompts in Berlin Underground Stations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3063-3070; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083063
Received: 26 June 2010 / Revised: 20 July 2010 / Accepted: 29 July 2010 / Published: 4 August 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (197 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To evaluate point-of-decision prompts in the promotion of stair use in Germany, motivational posters were placed at three underground stations in Berlin. The proportion of passengers using stairs or stairways was counted before, during installation, and two weeks after removal of posters. In
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To evaluate point-of-decision prompts in the promotion of stair use in Germany, motivational posters were placed at three underground stations in Berlin. The proportion of passengers using stairs or stairways was counted before, during installation, and two weeks after removal of posters. In total, 5,467 passersby were counted. Stair use increased significantly in women, but not in men. The present pilot study thereby shows that the use of point-of-decision prompts is also feasible in Germany and it provides some evidence of effectiveness. Methodologically rigorous studies are warranted to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle The More the Worse: the Grade of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss Associates with the Severity of Tinnitus
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3071-3079; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083071
Received: 8 July 2010 / Revised: 20 July 2010 / Accepted: 29 July 2010 / Published: 4 August 2010
Cited by 27 | PDF Full-text (127 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tinnitus disturbs lives and negatively affects the quality of life of about 2% of the adult world population. Research has shown that the main cause of tinnitus is hearing loss. To analyze a possible association of the degree of hearing loss with the
[...] Read more.
Tinnitus disturbs lives and negatively affects the quality of life of about 2% of the adult world population. Research has shown that the main cause of tinnitus is hearing loss. To analyze a possible association of the degree of hearing loss with the severity of tinnitus, we have performed a retrospective study using admission data on 531 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. We have found that 83% of our tinnitus patients had a high frequency hearing loss corresponding to a noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). There was a significant correlation between the mean hearing loss and the tinnitus loudness (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, patients suffering from decompensated chronic tinnitus had a greater degree of hearing loss than the patients with compensated form of tinnitus. In addition, we demonstrate that the degree of hearing loss positively correlates with the two subscales (“intrusiveness” and “auditory perceptional difficulties”) of the Tinnitus Questionnaire. Our retrospective study provides indirect evidence supporting the hypothesis that the degree of noise-induced hearing loss influences the severity of tinnitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noise and Quality of Life)
Open AccessArticle Predictors of Indoor Air Concentrations in Smoking and Non-Smoking Residences
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3080-3099; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083080
Received: 6 July 2010 / Revised: 27 July 2010 / Accepted: 29 July 2010 / Published: 4 August 2010
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Indoor concentrations of air pollutants (benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, elemental carbon and ozone) were measured in residences in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Data were collected in 106 homes in winter and 111 homes in summer of 2007, with 71
[...] Read more.
Indoor concentrations of air pollutants (benzene, toluene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter, elemental carbon and ozone) were measured in residences in Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada. Data were collected in 106 homes in winter and 111 homes in summer of 2007, with 71 homes participating in both seasons. In addition, data for relative humidity, temperature, air exchange rates, housing characteristics and occupants’ activities during sampling were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to construct season-specific models for the air pollutants. Where smoking was a major contributor to indoor concentrations, separate models were constructed for all homes and for those homes with no cigarette smoke exposure. The housing characteristics and occupants’ activities investigated in this study explained between 11% and 53% of the variability in indoor air pollutant concentrations, with ventilation, age of home and attached garage being important predictors for many pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Pollution and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Comparative Assessment of Soil Contamination by Lead and Heavy Metals in Riparian and Agricultural Areas (Southern Québec, Canada)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3100-3114; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083100
Received: 22 June 2010 / Revised: 29 July 2010 / Accepted: 2 August 2010 / Published: 5 August 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (486 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50), PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some
[...] Read more.
Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons (C10–C50), PAHS, lead and other heavy metals were recently found in the banks of two major rivers in southern Québec. Alluvial soils are contaminated over a distance of 100 kilometers. Eight sampling sites, including some located in agriculture areas (farm woodlots) have been selected to compare air pollution (aerosol fallout and rainout) and river pollution values. The concentrations detected in soil profiles for As, Cd and Pb vary between 3.01 to 37.88 mg kg−1 (As), 0.11 to 0.81 mg kg−1 (Cd) 12.32 to 149.13 mg kg−1 (Pb). These metallic elements are considered highly toxic and can harm wildlife and human health at high levels. The maximum concentration of Pb (149.13 mg kg−1) in soils of the riparian zone is twelve times higher than the average Pb concentration found in a natural state evaluated at 15.3 mg kg−1 (SD 17.5). Pb concentrations in soils of agricultural areas (woodland control sites) range between 12 and 22 mg kg−1, and given that these values are recorded in surrounding cultivated land, the issue of the quality of agricultural products (crops and forage) to feed livestock or destined for human consumption must be further addressed in detail. Full article
Open AccessArticle Factors Associated to Endemic Dental Fluorosis in Brazilian Rural Communities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3115-3128; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083115
Received: 23 June 2010 / Revised: 31 July 2010 / Accepted: 2 August 2010 / Published: 6 August 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (472 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The
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The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9) or absence (TF = 0) of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5—with loss of enamel structure) or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4—with no loss of enamel structure). Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073) and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060) in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05). More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5) was only associated with age group (p < 0.05). No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05). Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05) to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health)
Open AccessArticle The Global Challenge of Antimicrobial Resistance: Insights from Economic Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3141-3149; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083141
Received: 24 June 2010 / Revised: 27 July 2010 / Accepted: 30 July 2010 / Published: 9 August 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (152 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR) limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for
[...] Read more.
The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR) limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance.The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR) limits the therapeutic options for treatment of infections, and increases the social benefit from disease prevention. Like an environmental resource, antimicrobials require stewardship. The effectiveness of an antimicrobial agent is a global public good. We argue for greater use of economic analysis as an input to policy discussion about AR, including for understanding the incentives underlying health behaviors that spawn AR, and to supplement other methods of tracing the evolution of AR internationally. We also discuss integrating antimicrobial stewardship into global health governance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Relation between Temperature and Mortality in Thirteen Spanish Cities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3196-3210; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083196
Received: 26 June 2010 / Revised: 28 July 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 11 August 2010
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (1758 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study we examined the shape of the association between temperature and mortality in 13 Spanish cities representing a wide range of climatic and socio-demographic conditions. The temperature value linked with minimum mortality (MMT) and the slopes before and after the turning
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In this study we examined the shape of the association between temperature and mortality in 13 Spanish cities representing a wide range of climatic and socio-demographic conditions. The temperature value linked with minimum mortality (MMT) and the slopes before and after the turning point (MMT) were calculated. Most cities showed a V-shaped temperature-mortality relationship. MMTs were generally higher in cities with warmer climates. Cold and heat effects also depended on climate: effects were greater in hotter cities but lesser in cities with higher variability. The effect of heat was greater than the effect of cold. The effect of cold and MMT was, in general, greater for cardio-respiratory mortality than for total mortality, while the effect of heat was, in general, greater among the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health Impacts and Adaptation)
Open AccessArticle Exploring Variation and Predictors of Residential Fine Particulate Matter Infiltration
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3211-3224; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083211
Received: 30 June 2010 / Revised: 12 August 2010 / Accepted: 13 August 2010 / Published: 16 August 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (340 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed
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Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Pollution and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Microfungi in Drinking Water: The Role of the Frog Litoria caerulea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3225-3234; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083225
Received: 20 July 2010 / Revised: 9 August 2010 / Accepted: 16 August 2010 / Published: 19 August 2010
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (233 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Microfungi were recovered from all parts of a municipal water distribution system in sub-tropical Australia even though virtually no colony-forming units were recovered from the treated water as it left the treatment plant. A study was then undertaken to determine the potential sources
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Microfungi were recovered from all parts of a municipal water distribution system in sub-tropical Australia even though virtually no colony-forming units were recovered from the treated water as it left the treatment plant. A study was then undertaken to determine the potential sources of the microfungal population in the distribution system. Observation of frogs (Litoria caerulea) using the internal infrastructure of a reservoir as diurnal sleeping places, together with observation of visible microfungal growth on their faecal pellets, led to an investigation of the possible involvement of this animal. Old faecal pellets were collected and sporulating fungal colonies growing on their surfaces were identified. Fresh faecal pellets were collected and analysed for microfungal content, and skin swabs were analysed for yeasts. It was found that the faeces and skin of L. caerulea carried large numbers of yeasts as well as spores of various filamentous fungal genera. While there are many possible sources of microfungal contamination of municipal drinking water supplies, this study has revealed that the Australian green tree frog L. caerulea is one of the important sources of filamentous microfungi and yeasts in water storage reservoirs in sub-tropical Australia where the animal is endemic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health)
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Open AccessArticle Aging Risk and Health Care Expenditure in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3235-3254; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083235
Received: 5 July 2010 / Revised: 4 August 2010 / Accepted: 6 August 2010 / Published: 20 August 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper analyzes the impact of population aging on health care expenditures in Korea. Examination of the age-expenditure profile reveals that health care resources are allocated more for the older cohort of population over time, suggesting significant growth of health care expenditures due
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This paper analyzes the impact of population aging on health care expenditures in Korea. Examination of the age-expenditure profile reveals that health care resources are allocated more for the older cohort of population over time, suggesting significant growth of health care expenditures due to population aging. We contend, however, that population aging is considered as a parameter rather than an independent variable to explain rising health care expenditures. This paper shows that population aging is not found to be a significant determinant of health care expenditures according to the econometric analysis using OECD health data and time-series data for Korea. Using the components decomposition method, which measures the contribution of each component of health care expenditure, we estimate that population aging contributes only less than 10 percent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Behavior and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle Noise in Schools: A Holistic Approach to the Issue
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3255-3269; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083255
Received: 22 July 2010 / Revised: 18 August 2010 / Accepted: 19 August 2010 / Published: 23 August 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (65 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Much of the research evidence relating to the physical learning environment of schools is inconclusive, contradictory or incomplete. Nevertheless, within this confusing area, research from a number of disciplines, using a range of methodologies, points to the negative impact of noise on students’
[...] Read more.
Much of the research evidence relating to the physical learning environment of schools is inconclusive, contradictory or incomplete. Nevertheless, within this confusing area, research from a number of disciplines, using a range of methodologies, points to the negative impact of noise on students’ learning. In this paper, drawing on our systematic review of learning environments we review the weight of evidence in relation to noise, considering what implications the results of these studies have for the design and use of learning spaces in schools. We make four key points. Firstly that noise over a given level does appear to have a negative impact on learning. Secondly that beneath these levels noise may or may not be problematic, depending on the social, cultural and pedagogical expectations of the students and teachers. Thirdly we argue that when noise is deemed to be a difficulty, this finding cannot simply be translated into design prescriptions. The reasons for this indeterminacy include differing understandings of the routes through which noise produces learning deficits, as well as relationships between noise and other elements of the environment, particularly the impacts of physical solutions to noise problems. Finally, we suggest that solutions to noise problems will not be produced by viewing noise in isolation, or even as part of the physical environment, but through participatory approaches to understanding and adapting the structure, organisation and use of learning spaces in schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noise and Quality of Life)
Open AccessArticle Do Questions Reflecting Indoor Air Pollutant Exposure from a Questionnaire Predict Direct Measure of Exposure in Owner-Occupied Houses?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3270-3297; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083270
Received: 2 July 2010 / Revised: 14 August 2010 / Accepted: 18 August 2010 / Published: 23 August 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (603 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Home characteristic questions are used in epidemiological studies and clinical settings to assess potentially harmful exposures in the home. The objective of this study was to determine whether questionnaire-reported home characteristics can predict directly measured pollutants. Sixty home inspections were conducted on a
[...] Read more.
Home characteristic questions are used in epidemiological studies and clinical settings to assess potentially harmful exposures in the home. The objective of this study was to determine whether questionnaire-reported home characteristics can predict directly measured pollutants. Sixty home inspections were conducted on a subsample of the 2006 population-based Toronto Child Health Evaluation Questionnaire. Indoor/outdoor air and settled dust samples were analyzed. Mean Fel d 1 was higher (p < 0.0001) in homes with a cat (450.58 µg/g) versus without (22.28 µg/g). Mean indoor NO2 was higher (p = 0.003) in homes with gas stoves (14.98 ppb) versus without (8.31 ppb). Self-reported musty odours predicted higher glucan levels (10554.37 µg/g versus 6308.58 µg/g, p = 0.0077). Der f 1 was predicted by the home’s age, but not by reports of carpets, and was higher in homes with mean relative humidity > 50% (61.30 µg/g, versus 6.24 µg/g, p = 0.002). Self-reported presence of a cat, a gas stove, musty odours, mice, and the home’s age and indoor relative humidity over 50% predicted measured indoor levels of cat allergens, NO2, fungal glucan, mouse allergens and dust mite allergens, respectively. These results are helpful for understanding the significance of indoor exposures ascertained by self-reporting in large epidemiological studies and also in the clinical setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Pollution and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Toxicity of the Herbicide Atrazine: Effects on Lipid Peroxidation and Activities of Antioxidant Enzymes in the Freshwater Fish Channa Punctatus (Bloch)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3298-3312; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083298
Received: 23 July 2010 / Accepted: 23 August 2010 / Published: 24 August 2010
Cited by 66 | PDF Full-text (316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96
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The present study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity and effects of a commercial formulation of the herbicide atrazine (Rasayanzine) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme system in the freshwater air breathing fish Channa punctatus. The 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h LC50 of atrazine, calculated by probit analysis, were determined to be 77.091, 64.053, 49.100, 44.412 and 42.381 mg·L-1, respectively, in a semi static system with significant difference (p < 0.05) in LC10-90 values obtained for different times of exposure. In addition to concentration and time dependent decrease in mortality rate, stress signs in the form of behavioral changes were also observed in response to the test chemical. In fish exposed for 15 days to different sublethal concentrations of the herbicide (1/4 LC50 = ~10.600 mg·L-1, 1/8 LC50 = ~5.300 mg·L-1 and 1/10 LC50 = ~4.238 mg·L-1) induction of oxidative stress in the liver was evidence by increased lipid peroxidation levels. The antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) responded positively in a concentration dependent pattern, thus, suggesting the use of these antioxidants as potential biomarkers of toxicity associated with contaminations exposure in freshwater fishes. Full article

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Adaptation to Impacts of Climate Change on Aeroallergens and Allergic Respiratory Diseases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3006-3021; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083006
Received: 21 June 2010 / Revised: 21 July 2010 / Accepted: 23 July 2010 / Published: 28 July 2010
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (193 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Climate change has the potential to have many significant impacts on aeroallergens such as pollen and mould spores, and therefore related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. This paper critically reviews this topic, with a focus on the potential adaptation measures that
[...] Read more.
Climate change has the potential to have many significant impacts on aeroallergens such as pollen and mould spores, and therefore related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. This paper critically reviews this topic, with a focus on the potential adaptation measures that have been identified to date. These are aeroallergen monitoring; aeroallergen forecasting; allergenic plant management; planting practices and policies; urban/settlement planning; building design and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC); access to health care and medications; education; and research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Climate Change and Human Health Impacts and Adaptation)
Open AccessReview Can Intensive Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs Lead to Passive Alcoholization?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3038-3050; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083038
Received: 28 June 2010 / Revised: 22 July 2010 / Accepted: 27 July 2010 / Published: 30 July 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (204 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these
[...] Read more.
Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m3 per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed. Full article
Open AccessReview Lime-Based Sorbents for High-Temperature CO2 Capture—A Review of Sorbent Modification Methods
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3129-3140; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083129
Received: 28 June 2010 / Revised: 19 July 2010 / Accepted: 31 July 2010 / Published: 6 August 2010
Cited by 61 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a review of the research on CO2 capture by lime-based looping cycles undertaken at CanmetENERGY’s (Ottawa, Canada) research laboratories. This is a new and very promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a review of the research on CO2 capture by lime-based looping cycles undertaken at CanmetENERGY’s (Ottawa, Canada) research laboratories. This is a new and very promising technology that may help in mitigation of global warming and climate change caused primarily by the use of fossil fuels. The intensity of the anticipated changes urgently requires solutions such as more cost-effective technologies for CO2 capture. This new technology is based on the use of lime-based sorbents in a dual fluidized bed combustion (FBC) reactor which contains a carbonator—a unit for CO2 capture, and a calciner—a unit for CaO regeneration. However, even though natural materials are cheap and abundant and very good candidates as solid CO2 carriers, their performance in a practical system still shows significant limitations. These limitations include rapid loss of activity during the capture cycles, which is a result of sintering, attrition, and consequent elutriation from FBC reactors. Therefore, research on sorbent performance is critical and this paper reviews some of the promising ways to overcome these shortcomings. It is shown that reactivation by steam/water, thermal pre-treatment, and doping simultaneously with sorbent reforming and pelletization are promising potential solutions to reduce the loss of activity of these sorbents over multiple cycles of use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbon Capture and Storage)
Open AccessReview Economic Evaluation of Lifestyle Interventions for Preventing Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(8), 3150-3195; doi:10.3390/ijerph7083150
Received: 5 July 2010 / Revised: 23 July 2010 / Accepted: 5 August 2010 / Published: 9 August 2010
Cited by 47 | PDF Full-text (452 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lifestyle interventions (i.e., diet and/or physical activity) are effective in delaying or preventing the onset of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, policymakers must know the cost-effectiveness of such interventions before implementing them at the large-scale population level. This review discusses various
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Lifestyle interventions (i.e., diet and/or physical activity) are effective in delaying or preventing the onset of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. However, policymakers must know the cost-effectiveness of such interventions before implementing them at the large-scale population level. This review discusses various issues (e.g., characteristics, modeling, and long-term effectiveness) in the economic evaluation of lifestyle interventions for the primary and secondary prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The diverse nature of lifestyle interventions, i.e., type of intervention, means of provision, target groups, setting, and methodology, are the main obstacles to comparing evaluation results. However, most lifestyle interventions are among the intervention options usually regarded as cost-effective. Diabetes prevention programs, such as interventions starting with targeted or universal screening, childhood obesity prevention, and community-based interventions, have reported favorable cost-effectiveness ratios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Economics)

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