Next Issue
Previous Issue

E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Table of Contents

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 7, Issue 10 (October 2010), Pages 3561-3852

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-16
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Information Sharing and Environmental Policies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3561-3578; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103561
Received: 20 August 2010 / Revised: 25 September 2010 / Accepted: 29 September 2010 / Published: 11 October 2010
PDF Full-text (228 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Based on the assumption that in a standard eco-dumping model governments are uncertain about future product demand and allowing governments to obtain information from firms, we examine governments’ and firms’ incentives to share information. We show that when governments regulate polluting firms [...] Read more.
Based on the assumption that in a standard eco-dumping model governments are uncertain about future product demand and allowing governments to obtain information from firms, we examine governments’ and firms’ incentives to share information. We show that when governments regulate polluting firms through emission standards, then governments and firms will reach an agreement concerning information sharing. The opposite holds when governments regulate pollution through emission taxes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Economics)
Open AccessArticle Exploring the Relationship between Noise Sensitivity, Annoyance and Health-Related Quality of Life in a Sample of Adults Exposed to Environmental Noise
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3579-3594; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103580
Received: 19 August 2010 / Revised: 30 August 2010 / Accepted: 28 September 2010 / Published: 11 October 2010
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (125 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The relationship between environmental noise and health is poorly understood but of fundamental importance to public health. This study estimated the relationship between noise sensitivity, noise annoyance and health-related quality of life in a sample of adults residing close to the Auckland [...] Read more.
The relationship between environmental noise and health is poorly understood but of fundamental importance to public health. This study estimated the relationship between noise sensitivity, noise annoyance and health-related quality of life in a sample of adults residing close to the Auckland International Airport, New Zealand. A small sample (n = 105) completed surveys measuring noise sensitivity, noise annoyance, and quality of life. Noise sensitivity was associated with health-related quality of life; annoyance and sleep disturbance mediated the effects of noise sensitivity on health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noise and Quality of Life)
Open AccessArticle Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3595-3614; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103596
Received: 17 August 2010 / Revised: 31 August 2010 / Accepted: 27 September 2010 / Published: 11 October 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In [...] Read more.
Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act) uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1) food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2) a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3) risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4) soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan. Full article
Open AccessArticle Determinants of Arsenicosis Patients’ Perception and Social Implications of Arsenic Poisoning through Groundwater in Bangladesh
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3644-3656; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103644
Received: 20 August 2010 / Revised: 23 September 2010 / Accepted: 28 September 2010 / Published: 14 October 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (189 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Adverse human health effects ranging from skin lesions to internal cancers as well as widespread social and psychological problems caused by arsenic contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh may be the biggest arsenic calamity in the world. From an arsenicosis patients survey, this paper empirically analyzes the determinants of arsenicosis patients’ perception about chronic arsenic poisoning and social and psychological implications of arsenicosis. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from the Matlab and Hajiganj Upzillas of Chandpur district which are known to be highly contaminated with arsenic in their underground water. Respondents informed that arsenic poisoning causes a wide range of social and psychological problems. Female respondents were less vulnerable in the case of social problems (p < 0.01) and more vulnerable for the psychological problems (p < 0.001) of arsenicosis than male respondents. The results based on logit analysis showed that education (p < 0.01) and household income (p < 0.05) were significantly correlated to respondents’ perception about arsenicosis. The arsenicosis related special program (s) needs a clear understanding of people’s perception about arsenic exposure for abating the health burden as well as social and psychological problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health)
Open AccessArticle Family Pet Ownership during Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort and Implications for Public Health Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3704-3729; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103704
Received: 15 September 2010 / Revised: 13 October 2010 / Accepted: 15 October 2010 / Published: 18 October 2010
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors [...] Read more.
In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood. Full article
Open AccessArticle Effects of Changed Aircraft Noise Exposure on Experiential Qualities of Outdoor Recreational Areas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3739-3759; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103739
Received: 15 September 2010 / Revised: 6 October 2010 / Accepted: 15 October 2010 / Published: 20 October 2010
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (752 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The literature indicates that sound and visual stimuli interact in the impression of landscapes. This paper examines the relationship between annoyance with sound from aircraft and annoyance with other area problems (e.g., careless bicycle riding, crowding, etc.), and how changes [...] Read more.
The literature indicates that sound and visual stimuli interact in the impression of landscapes. This paper examines the relationship between annoyance with sound from aircraft and annoyance with other area problems (e.g., careless bicycle riding, crowding, etc.), and how changes in noise exposure influence the perceived overall recreational quality of outdoor recreational areas. A panel study (telephone interviews) conducted before and after the relocation of Norway’s main airport in 1998 examined effects of decreased or increased noise exposure in nearby recreational areas (n = 591/455). Sound from aircraft annoyed the largest proportion of recreationists, except near the old airport after the change. The decrease in annoyance with sound from aircraft was accompanied by significant decreases in annoyance with most of the other area problems. Near the new airport annoyance with most factors beside sound from aircraft increased slightly, but not significantly. A relationship between aircraft noise annoyance and perceived overall recreational quality of the areas was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noise and Quality of Life)
Open AccessArticle Chronic Cigarette Smoking: Implications for Neurocognition and Brain Neurobiology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3760-3791; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103760
Received: 9 September 2010 / Revised: 29 September 2010 / Accepted: 9 October 2010 / Published: 21 October 2010
Cited by 59 | PDF Full-text (205 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Compared to the substantial volume of research on the general health consequences associated with chronic smoking, little research has been specifically devoted to the investigation of its effects on human neurobiology and neurocognition. This review summarizes the peer-reviewed literature on the neurocognitive [...] Read more.
Compared to the substantial volume of research on the general health consequences associated with chronic smoking, little research has been specifically devoted to the investigation of its effects on human neurobiology and neurocognition. This review summarizes the peer-reviewed literature on the neurocognitive and neurobiological implications of chronic cigarette smoking in cohorts that were not seeking treatment for substance use or psychiatric disorders. Studies that specifically assessed the neurocognitive or neurobiological (with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance-based neuroimaging studies) consequences of chronic smoking are highlighted. Chronic cigarette smoking appears to be associated with deficiencies in executive functions, cognitive flexibility, general intellectual abilities, learning and/or memory processing speed, and working memory. Chronic smoking is related to global brain atrophy and to structural and biochemical abnormalities in anterior frontal regions, subcortical nuclei and commissural white matter. Chronic smoking may also be associated with an increased risk for various forms of neurodegenerative diseases. The existing literature is limited by inconsistent accounting for potentially confounding biomedical and psychiatric conditions, focus on cross-sectional studies with middle aged and older adults and the absence of studies concurrently assessing neurocognitive, neurobiological and genetic factors in the same cohort. Consequently, the mechanisms promoting the neurocognitive and neurobiological abnormalities reported in chronic smokers are unclear. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if the smoking-related neurobiological and neurocognitive abnormalities increase over time and/or show recovery with sustained smoking cessation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle A Three Year Study on 14 VOCs at One Site in Rome: Levels, Seasonal Variations, Indoor/Outdoor Ratio and Temporal Trends
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3792-3803; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103792
Received: 1 September 2010 / Revised: 14 September 2010 / Accepted: 22 September 2010 / Published: 22 October 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Fourteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs)—twelve hydrocarbons and two organochlorine compounds—were monitored both outdoors and indoors for three years at one site in Rome. Results showed that 118 out of 168 indoor seasonal mean values were higher than the corresponding outdoor concentrations. The [...] Read more.
Fourteen volatile organic compounds (VOCs)—twelve hydrocarbons and two organochlorine compounds—were monitored both outdoors and indoors for three years at one site in Rome. Results showed that 118 out of 168 indoor seasonal mean values were higher than the corresponding outdoor concentrations. The most relevant source of outdoor hydrocarbons was automotive exhaust emissions. Due to the enforcement of various measures to protect health and the environment, outdoor levels of monoaromatic hydrocarbons decreased about ten fold over 15 years, and aliphatic hydrocarbons also decreased. With the decrease in these outdoor concentrations, indoor air sources are likely to be more relevant for indoor air exposures. Winter outdoor values for monoaromatic hydrocarbons were generally markedly higher than the summer ones. The gradual replacement of the current fleet of circulating cars with new cars complying with EURO 5 standards, further reducing hydrocarbon emissions, may possibly lead to an increase in the observed indoor/outdoor ratios. It is indeed more difficult to remove indoor sources, some of which are still unknown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Indoor Air Pollution and Human Health)
Open AccessArticle Effects of Various Doses of Selenite on Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioica L.)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3804-3815; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103804
Received: 30 August 2010 / Revised: 14 September 2010 / Accepted: 2 October 2010 / Published: 22 October 2010
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) plants. Se was supplemented by [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) on the growth, accumulation and possible mechanisms of Se transport in certain parts (roots, leaves, stamp and apex) of nettle (Urtica dioica L.) plants. Se was supplemented by one-shot and two repeated doses to the soil (2.0 and 4.0 mg Se per kg of substrate). Selenium content in roots increased linearly with dose and was significantly higher compared to other plant parts of interest. However, growth of the above-ground parts of plant as well as roots was slightly inhibited with increasing selenium concentration in comparison to the untreated plants. The content of phytochelatin2, a low molecular mass peptide containing a sulfhydryl group, correlated well with the Se content. This suggests a possible stimulation of synthesis of this plant peptide by Se. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Environmental Biology)
Open AccessArticle Tobacco Use and Cardiovascular Disease among American Indians: The Strong Heart Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3816-3830; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103816
Received: 8 September 2010 / Revised: 12 October 2010 / Accepted: 18 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tobacco use among American Indians has a long and complicated history ranging from its utilization in spiritual ceremonies to its importance as an economic factor for survival. Despite this cultural tradition and long history, there are few studies of the health effects [...] Read more.
Tobacco use among American Indians has a long and complicated history ranging from its utilization in spiritual ceremonies to its importance as an economic factor for survival. Despite this cultural tradition and long history, there are few studies of the health effects of tobacco in this population. The Strong Heart Study is a prospective observational study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in 13 American Indian tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota with 4,549 participants. Baseline examinations were followed by two examinations at regular intervals and 16 years of morbidity and mortality follow-up. Hazard ratios (HRs) for non-fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.54 to 2.45) and men (HR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.18). Hazard ratios for fatal CVD for current smokers vs. non-smokers after adjusting for other risk factors were significant in women (HR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.58), but not in men. Individuals who smoked and who were diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, hypertension or renal insufficiency were more likely to quit smoking than those without these conditions. On average, American Indians smoke fewer cigarettes per day than other racial/ethnic groups; nevertheless, the ill effects of habitual tobacco use are evident in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tobacco Smoking: Public Health, Science and Policy)
Open AccessArticle Multidrug Resistance and Plasmid Patterns of Escherichia coli O157 and Other E. coli Isolated from Diarrhoeal Stools and Surface Waters from Some Selected Sources in Zaria, Nigeria
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3831-3841; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103831
Received: 25 September 2010 / Accepted: 22 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (109 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have assessed the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in diarrhoeal patients and surface waters from some selected sources in Zaria (Nigeria), evaluating the antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profiles of 184 E. coli isolates, obtained from 228 water samples and 112 diarrhoeal [...] Read more.
We have assessed the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157 in diarrhoeal patients and surface waters from some selected sources in Zaria (Nigeria), evaluating the antibiotic susceptibility and plasmid profiles of 184 E. coli isolates, obtained from 228 water samples and 112 diarrhoeal stool specimens (collected from children aged Full article
Open AccessArticle Determinants of Use of Household-level Water Chlorination Products in Rural Kenya, 2003–2005
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3842-3852; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103842
Received: 20 September 2010 / Revised: 18 October 2010 / Accepted: 20 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Household-level water treatment products provide safe drinking water to at-risk populations, but relatively few people use them regularly; little is known about factors that influence uptake of this proven health intervention. We assessed uptake of these water treatments in Nyanza Province, Kenya, [...] Read more.
Household-level water treatment products provide safe drinking water to at-risk populations, but relatively few people use them regularly; little is known about factors that influence uptake of this proven health intervention. We assessed uptake of these water treatments in Nyanza Province, Kenya, November 2003–February 2005. We interviewed users and non-user controls of a new household water treatment product regarding drinking water and socioeconomic factors. We calculated regional use-prevalence of these products based on 10 randomly selected villages in the Asembo region of Nyanza Province, Kenya. Thirty-eight percent of respondents reported ever using household-level treatment products. Initial use of a household-level product was associated with having turbid water as a source (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 16.6, p = 0.007), but consistent usage was more common for a less costly and more accessible product that did not address turbidity. A combination of social marketing, retail marketing, and donor subsidies may be necessary to extend the health benefits of household-level water treatment to populations most at risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Current Status and Regulatory Aspects of Pesticides Considered to be Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3615-3627; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103615
Received: 17 August 2010 / Revised: 2 September 2010 / Accepted: 10 September 2010 / Published: 12 October 2010
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are capable of persisting in the environment, transporting between phase media and accumulating to high levels, implying that they could pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. Consequently, most OCPs are designated as [...] Read more.
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are capable of persisting in the environment, transporting between phase media and accumulating to high levels, implying that they could pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. Consequently, most OCPs are designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and even as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The objective of this paper was to review the current status of pesticide POPs in Taiwan, including aldrin, chlordane, chlordecone, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, α/β-hexachlorocyclohexanes, lindane, mirex, pentachloro-benzene, and toxaphene. The information about their environmental properties, banned use, carcinogenic toxicity and environmental levels, can be connected with the regulatory infrastructure, which has been established by the joint-venture of the central competent authorities (i.e., Environmental Protection Administration, Department of Health, Council of Agriculture, and Council of Labor Affairs). The significant progress to be reported is that the residual levels of these pesticide-POPs, ranging from trace amounts to a few ppb, have declined notably in recent years. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Legislation and Public Health)
Open AccessReview Vibrio Fluvialis: An Unusual Enteric Pathogen of Increasing Public Health Concern
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3628-3643; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103628
Received: 2 September 2010 / Accepted: 8 October 2010 / Published: 12 October 2010
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (69 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In developing countries, the fraction of treated wastewater effluents being discharged into watersheds have increased over the period of time, which have led to the deteriorations of the qualities of major rivers in developing nations. Consequently, high densities of disease causing bacteria [...] Read more.
In developing countries, the fraction of treated wastewater effluents being discharged into watersheds have increased over the period of time, which have led to the deteriorations of the qualities of major rivers in developing nations. Consequently, high densities of disease causing bacteria in the watersheds are regularly reported including incidences of emerging Vibrio fluvialis. Vibrio fluvialis infection remains among those infectious diseases posing a potentially serious threat to public health. This paper addresses the epidemiology of this pathogen; pathogenesis of its disease; and its clinical manifestations in humans. Full article
Open AccessReview Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3657-3703; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103657
Received: 19 August 2010 / Revised: 7 September 2010 / Accepted: 28 September 2010 / Published: 15 October 2010
Cited by 82 | PDF Full-text (388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever [...] Read more.
Water is essential to life, but many people do not have access to clean and safe drinking water and many die of waterborne bacterial infections. In this review a general characterization of the most important bacterial diseases transmitted through water—cholera, typhoid fever and bacillary dysentery—is presented, focusing on the biology and ecology of the causal agents and on the diseases’ characteristics and their life cycles in the environment. The importance of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains and emerging pathogens in drinking water-transmitted diseases is also briefly discussed. Microbiological water analysis is mainly based on the concept of fecal indicator bacteria. The main bacteria present in human and animal feces (focusing on their behavior in their hosts and in the environment) and the most important fecal indicator bacteria are presented and discussed (focusing on the advantages and limitations of their use as markers). Important sources of bacterial fecal pollution of environmental waters are also briefly indicated. In the last topic it is discussed which indicators of fecal pollution should be used in current drinking water microbiological analysis. It was concluded that safe drinking water for all is one of the major challenges of the 21st century and that microbiological control of drinking water should be the norm everywhere. Routine basic microbiological analysis of drinking water should be carried out by assaying the presence of Escherichia coli by culture methods. Whenever financial resources are available, fecal coliform determinations should be complemented with the quantification of enterococci. More studies are needed in order to check if ammonia is reliable for a preliminary screening for emergency fecal pollution outbreaks. Financial resources should be devoted to a better understanding of the ecology and behavior of human and animal fecal bacteria in environmental waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Drinking Water and Health)
Open AccessReview Noise and Quality of Life
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7(10), 3730-3738; doi:10.3390/ijerph7103730
Received: 14 September 2010 / Revised: 12 October 2010 / Accepted: 15 October 2010 / Published: 19 October 2010
Cited by 33 | PDF Full-text (142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Noise is defined as an unwanted sound or a combination of sounds that has adverse effects on health. These effects can manifest in the form of physiologic damage or psychological harm through a variety of mechanisms. Chronic noise exposure can cause permanent [...] Read more.
Noise is defined as an unwanted sound or a combination of sounds that has adverse effects on health. These effects can manifest in the form of physiologic damage or psychological harm through a variety of mechanisms. Chronic noise exposure can cause permanent threshold shifts and loss of hearing in specific frequency ranges. Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is thought to be one of the major causes of preventable hearing loss. Approximately 10 million adults and 5.2 million children in the US are already suffering from irreversible noise induced hearing impairment and thirty million more are exposed to dangerous levels of noise each day. The mechanisms of NIHL have yet to be fully identified, but many studies have enhanced our understanding of this process. The role of oxidative stress in NIHL has been extensively studied. There is compelling data to suggest that this damage may be mitigated through the implementation of several strategies including anti-oxidant, anti-ICAM 1 Ab, and anti JNK intervention. The psychological effects of noise are usually not well characterized and often ignored. However, their effect can be equally devastating and may include hypertension, tachycardia, increased cortisol release and increased physiologic stress. Collectively, these effects can have severe adverse consequences on daily living and globally on economic production. This article will review the physiologic and psychologic consequences of noise and its effect on quality of life. Full article

Journal Contact

MDPI AG
IJERPH Editorial Office
St. Alban-Anlage 66, 4052 Basel, Switzerland
ijerph@mdpi.com
Tel. +41 61 683 77 34
Fax: +41 61 302 89 18
Editorial Board
Contact Details Submit to IJERPH
Back to Top