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Modified Perfluorocarbon Tracer Method for Measuring Effective Multizone Air Exchange Rates
Research Institute of Science for Safety and Sustainability (RISS), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569, Japan
The Chemicals Evaluation and Research Institute, Japan (CERI), 1600 Shimotakano, Sugito-machi, Kitakatsushika-gun, Saitama 345-0043, Japan
Hitachi Chemical Co., Ltd., 13-1, Higashi-cho 4-chome, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki 317-8555, Japan
Sigma-Aldrich Japan K.K., 2-2-24, Higashi-Shinagawa, Shinagawa-ku, Tokyo 140-0002, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 July 2010; in revised form: 9 August 2010 / Accepted: 23 August 2010 / Published: 27 August 2010
Abstract: A modified procedure was developed for the measurement of the effective air exchange rate, which represents the relationship between the pollutants emitted from indoor sources and the residents’ level of exposure, by placing the dosers of tracer gas at locations that resemble indoor emission sources. To measure the 24-h-average effective air exchange rates in future surveys based on this procedure, a low-cost, easy-to-use perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) doser with a stable dosing rate was developed by using double glass vials, a needle, a polyethylene-sintered filter, and a diffusion tube. Carbon molecular sieve cartridges and carbon disulfide (CS2) were used for passive sampling and extraction of the tracer gas, respectively. Recovery efficiencies, sampling rates, and lower detection limits for 24-h sampling of hexafluorobenzene, octafluorotoluene, and perfluoroallylbenzene were 40% ± 3%, 72% ± 5%, and 84% ± 6%; 10.5 ± 1.1, 14.4 ± 1.4, and 12.2 ± 0.49 mL min−1; and 0.20, 0.17, and 0.26 μg m–3, respectively.
Keywords: air exchange rate; 24-h average; PFT method; multizone; solvent extraction
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MDPI and ACS Style
Shinohara, N.; Kataoka, T.; Takamine, K.; Butsugan, M.; Nishijima, H.; Gamo, M. Modified Perfluorocarbon Tracer Method for Measuring Effective Multizone Air Exchange Rates. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 3348-3358.
Shinohara N, Kataoka T, Takamine K, Butsugan M, Nishijima H, Gamo M. Modified Perfluorocarbon Tracer Method for Measuring Effective Multizone Air Exchange Rates. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(9):3348-3358.
Shinohara, Naohide; Kataoka, Toshiyuki; Takamine, Koichi; Butsugan, Michio; Nishijima, Hirokazu; Gamo, Masashi. 2010. "Modified Perfluorocarbon Tracer Method for Measuring Effective Multizone Air Exchange Rates." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 9: 3348-3358.