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Determinants of Use of Household-level Water Chlorination Products in Rural Kenya, 2003–2005
Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vectorborne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Epidemic Intelligence Service, Career Development Division, Office of Workforce and Career Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30333, USA
Procter & Gamble Health Sciences Institute, Procter & Gamble Plaza, Cincinnati, OH 45201, USA
CDC/Kenya Medical Research Institute, Mumias Rd., Kisian, Nyanza Province, Kenya
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 September 2010; in revised form: 18 October 2010 / Accepted: 20 October 2010 / Published: 25 October 2010
Abstract: Household-level water treatment products provide safe drinking water to at-risk populations, but relatively few people use them regularly; little is known about factors that influence uptake of this proven health intervention. We assessed uptake of these water treatments in Nyanza Province, Kenya, November 2003–February 2005. We interviewed users and non-user controls of a new household water treatment product regarding drinking water and socioeconomic factors. We calculated regional use-prevalence of these products based on 10 randomly selected villages in the Asembo region of Nyanza Province, Kenya. Thirty-eight percent of respondents reported ever using household-level treatment products. Initial use of a household-level product was associated with having turbid water as a source (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 16.6, p = 0.007), but consistent usage was more common for a less costly and more accessible product that did not address turbidity. A combination of social marketing, retail marketing, and donor subsidies may be necessary to extend the health benefits of household-level water treatment to populations most at risk.
Keywords: water; point-of-use; chlorination
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DuBois, A.E.; Crump, J.A.; Keswick, B.H.; Slutsker, L.; Quick, R.E.; Vulule, J.M.; Luby, S.P. Determinants of Use of Household-level Water Chlorination Products in Rural Kenya, 2003–2005. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 3842-3852.
DuBois AE, Crump JA, Keswick BH, Slutsker L, Quick RE, Vulule JM, Luby SP. Determinants of Use of Household-level Water Chlorination Products in Rural Kenya, 2003–2005. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(10):3842-3852.
DuBois, Amy E.; Crump, John A.; Keswick, Bruce H.; Slutsker, Laurence; Quick, Robert E.; Vulule, John M.; Luby, Stephen P. 2010. "Determinants of Use of Household-level Water Chlorination Products in Rural Kenya, 2003–2005." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 10: 3842-3852.