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Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan
Department of Post-Modern Agriculture, MingDao University, Changhua 52345, Taiwan
Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 91201, Taiwan
Division of Agricultural Chemistry, Taiwan Agricultural Research Institute, Council of Agriculture, Taichung 41301, Taiwan
Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 August 2010; in revised form: 31 August 2010 / Accepted: 27 September 2010 / Published: 11 October 2010
Abstract: Risk-based assessment is a way to evaluate the potential hazards of contaminated sites and is based on considering linkages between pollution sources, pathways, and receptors. These linkages can be broken by source reduction, pathway management, and modifying exposure of the receptors. In Taiwan, the Soil and Groundwater Pollution Remediation Act (SGWPR Act) uses one target regulation to evaluate the contamination status of soil and groundwater pollution. More than 600 sites contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) have been remediated and the costs of this process are always high. Besides using soil remediation techniques to remove contaminants from these sites, the selection of possible remediation methods to obtain rapid risk reduction is permissible and of increasing interest. This paper discusses previous soil remediation techniques applied to different sites in Taiwan and also clarified the differences of risk assessment before and after soil remediation obtained by applying different risk assessment models. This paper also includes many case studies on: (1) food safety risk assessment for brown rice growing in a HMs-contaminated site; (2) a tiered approach to health risk assessment for a contaminated site; (3) risk assessment for phytoremediation techniques applied in HMs-contaminated sites; and (4) soil remediation cost analysis for contaminated sites in Taiwan.
Keywords: risk-based assessment; heavy metal; soil remediation techniques; food safety risk; phytoremediation
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Lai, H.-Y.; Hseu, Z.-Y.; Chen, T.-C.; Chen, B.-C.; Guo, H.-Y.; Chen, Z.-S. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2010, 7, 3595-3614.
Lai H-Y, Hseu Z-Y, Chen T-C, Chen B-C, Guo H-Y, Chen Z-S. Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2010; 7(10):3595-3614.
Lai, Hung-Yu; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Chen, Ting-Chien; Chen, Bo-Ching; Guo, Horng-Yuh; Chen, Zueng-Sang. 2010. "Health Risk-Based Assessment and Management of Heavy Metals-Contaminated Soil Sites in Taiwan." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 7, no. 10: 3595-3614.