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Mar. Drugs, Volume 8, Issue 6 (June 2010), Pages 1731-1961

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle In Situ Aquaculture Methods for Dysidea avara (Demospongiae, Porifera) in the Northwestern Mediterranean
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(6), 1731-1742; doi:10.3390/md8061731
Received: 29 April 2010 / Revised: 14 May 2010 / Accepted: 24 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (451 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Marine sponges produce secondary metabolites that can be used as a natural source for the design of new drugs and cosmetics. There is, however, a supply problem with these natural substances for research and eventual commercialisation of the products. In situ sponge [...] Read more.
Marine sponges produce secondary metabolites that can be used as a natural source for the design of new drugs and cosmetics. There is, however, a supply problem with these natural substances for research and eventual commercialisation of the products. In situ sponge aquaculture is nowadays one of the most reliable methods to supply pharmaceutical companies with sufficient quantities of the target compound. In this study, we focus on the aquaculture of the sponge Dysidea avara (Schmidt, 1862), which produces avarol, a sterol with interesting pharmaceutical attributes. The soft consistency of this species makes the traditional culture method based on holding explants on ropes unsuitable. We have tested alternative culture methods for D. avara and optimized the underwater structures to hold the sponges to be used in aquaculture. Explants of this sponge were mounted on horizontal ropes, inside small cages or glued to substrates. Culture efficiency was evaluated by determination of sponge survival, growth rates, and bioactivity (as an indication of production of the target metabolite). While the cage method was the best method for explant survival, the glue method was the best one for explant growth and the rope method for bioactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Open AccessArticle Antibacterial Activities of a New Brominated Diterpene from Borneon Laurencia spp.
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(6), 1743-1749; doi:10.3390/md8061743
Received: 4 May 2010 / Accepted: 14 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (178 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In our continuous interest to study the diversity of halogenated metabolites of Malaysian species of the red algal genus Laurencia, we examined the chemical composition of five populations of unrecorded Laurencia sp. A new brominated diterpene, 10-acetoxyangasiol (1), and [...] Read more.
In our continuous interest to study the diversity of halogenated metabolites of Malaysian species of the red algal genus Laurencia, we examined the chemical composition of five populations of unrecorded Laurencia sp. A new brominated diterpene, 10-acetoxyangasiol (1), and four other known metabolites, aplysidiol (2), cupalaurenol (3), 1-methyl-2,3,5-tribromoindole (4), and chamigrane epoxide (5), were isolated and identified. Isolated metabolites exhibited potent antibacterial activities against clinical bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella sp. and Vibrio cholerae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Halogenated Metabolites of Marine Origin)
Open AccessArticle Chitosan-Genipin Microspheres for the Controlled Release of Drugs: Clarithromycin, Tramadol and Heparin
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(6), 1750-1762; doi:10.3390/md8061750
Received: 10 March 2010 / Revised: 23 April 2010 / Accepted: 17 May 2010 / Published: 26 May 2010
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (378 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to first evaluate whether the chitosan hydrochloride-genipin crosslinking reaction is influenced by factors such as time, and polymer/genipin concentration, and second, to develop crosslinked drug loaded microspheres to improve the control over drug release. Once the [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to first evaluate whether the chitosan hydrochloride-genipin crosslinking reaction is influenced by factors such as time, and polymer/genipin concentration, and second, to develop crosslinked drug loaded microspheres to improve the control over drug release. Once the crosslinking process was characterized as a function of the factors mentioned above, drug loaded hydrochloride chitosan microspheres with different degrees of crosslinking were obtained. Microspheres were characterized in terms of size, morphology, drug content, surface charge and capacity to control in vitro drug release. Clarithromycin, tramadol hydrochloride, and low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) were used as model drugs. The obtained particles were spherical, positively charged, with a diameter of 1–10 μm. X-Ray diffraction showed that there was an interaction of genipin and each drug with chitosan in the microspheres. In relation to the release profiles, a higher degree of crosslinking led to more control of drug release in the case of clarithromycin and tramadol. For these drugs, optimal release profiles were obtained for microspheres crosslinked with 1 mM genipin at 50 ºC for 5 h and with 5 mM genipin at 50 ºC for 5 h, respectively. In LMWH microspheres, the best release profile corresponded to 0.5 mM genipin, 50 ºC, 5 h. In conclusion, genipin showed to be eligible as a chemical-crosslinking agent delaying the outflow of drugs from the microspheres. However, more studies in vitro and in vivo must be carried out to determine adequate crosslinking conditions for different drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Chitin and Chitosan)
Open AccessCommunication Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Chitooligosaccharides in Vivo
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(6), 1763-1768; doi:10.3390/md8061763
Received: 15 April 2010 / Revised: 14 May 2010 / Accepted: 26 May 2010 / Published: 28 May 2010
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
All the reports to date on the anti-inflammatory activity of chitooligosaccharides (COS) are mostly based on in vitro methods. In this work, the anti-inflammatory activity of two COS mixtures is characterized in vivo (using balb/c mice), following the carrageenan-induced paw edema method. [...] Read more.
All the reports to date on the anti-inflammatory activity of chitooligosaccharides (COS) are mostly based on in vitro methods. In this work, the anti-inflammatory activity of two COS mixtures is characterized in vivo (using balb/c mice), following the carrageenan-induced paw edema method. This is a widely accepted animal model of acute inflammation to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of drugs. Our data suggest that COS possess anti-inflammatoryactivity, which is dependent on dose and, at higher doses, also on the molecular weight. A single dose of 500 mg/kg b.w. weight may be suitable to treat acute inflammation cases; however, further studies are needed to ascertain the effect upon longer inflammation periods as well as studies upon the bioavailability of these compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides)
Open AccessArticle Evaluation of Pyridoacridine Alkaloids in a Zebrafish Phenotypic Assay
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(6), 1769-1778; doi:10.3390/md8061769
Received: 28 April 2010 / Revised: 20 May 2010 / Accepted: 25 May 2010 / Published: 2 June 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Three new minor components, the pyridoacridine alkaloids 1-hydroxy-deoxyamphimedine (1), 3-hydroxy-deoxyamphimedine (2), debromopetrosamine (3), and three known compounds, amphimedine (4), neoamphimedine (5) and deoxyamphimedine (6), have been isolated from the sponge [...] Read more.
Three new minor components, the pyridoacridine alkaloids 1-hydroxy-deoxyamphimedine (1), 3-hydroxy-deoxyamphimedine (2), debromopetrosamine (3), and three known compounds, amphimedine (4), neoamphimedine (5) and deoxyamphimedine (6), have been isolated from the sponge Xestospongia cf. carbonaria, collected in Palau. Structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR studies as well as analysis by HRESIMS. Compounds 16 were evaluated in a zebrafish phenotype-based assay. Amphimedine (4) was the only compound that caused a phenotype in zebrafish embryos at 30 µM. No phenotype other than death was observed for compounds 13, 5, 6. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Alkaloids)
Open AccessArticle Intramolecular Modulation of Serine Protease Inhibitor Activity in a Marine Cyanobacterium with Antifeedant Properties
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(6), 1803-1816; doi:10.3390/md8061803
Received: 15 April 2010 / Revised: 2 June 2010 / Accepted: 2 June 2010 / Published: 4 June 2010
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (562 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Extracts of the Floridian marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya cf. confervoides were found to deter feeding by reef fish and sea urchins (Diadema antillarum). This antifeedant activity may be a reflection of the secondary metabolite content, known to be comprised of many [...] Read more.
Extracts of the Floridian marine cyanobacterium Lyngbya cf. confervoides were found to deter feeding by reef fish and sea urchins (Diadema antillarum). This antifeedant activity may be a reflection of the secondary metabolite content, known to be comprised of many serine protease inhibitors. Further chemical and NMR spectroscopic investigation led us to isolate and structurally characterize a new serine protease inhibitor 1 that is formally derived from an intramolecular condensation of largamide D (2). The cyclization resulted in diminished activity, but to different extents against two serine proteases tested. This finding suggests that cyanobacteria can endogenously modulate the activity of their protease inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins)
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Open AccessArticle Are Known Cyanotoxins Involved in the Toxicity of Picoplanktonic and Filamentous North Atlantic Marine Cyanobacteria?
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(6), 1908-1919; doi:10.3390/md8061908
Received: 1 June 2010 / Revised: 17 June 2010 / Accepted: 21 June 2010 / Published: 21 June 2010
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Eight marine cyanobacteria strains of the genera Cyanobium, Leptolyngbya, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Synechococcus were isolated from rocky beaches along the Atlantic Portuguese central coast and tested for ecotoxicity. Strains were identified by morphological characteristics and by the amplification [...] Read more.
Eight marine cyanobacteria strains of the genera Cyanobium, Leptolyngbya, Oscillatoria, Phormidium, and Synechococcus were isolated from rocky beaches along the Atlantic Portuguese central coast and tested for ecotoxicity. Strains were identified by morphological characteristics and by the amplification and sequentiation of the 16S rDNA. Bioactivity of dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous extracts was assessed by the Artemia salina bioassay. Peptide toxin production was screened by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Molecular analysis of the genes involved in the production of known cyanotoxins such as microcystins, nodularins and cylindrospermopsin was also performed. Strains were toxic to the brine shrimp A. salina nauplii with aqueous extracts being more toxic than the organic ones. Although mass spectrometry analysis did not reveal the production of microcystins or other known toxic peptides, a positive result for the presence of mcyE gene was found in one Leptolyngbya strain and one Oscillatoria strain. The extensive brine shrimp mortality points to the involvement of other unknown toxins, and the presence of a fragment of genes involved in the cyanotoxin production highlight the potential risk of cyanobacteria occurrence on the Atlantic coast. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview Bacterial Exopolysaccharides from Extreme Marine Habitats: Production, Characterization and Biological Activities
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(6), 1779-1802; doi:10.3390/md8061779
Received: 8 May 2010 / Revised: 25 May 2010 / Accepted: 2 June 2010 / Published: 3 June 2010
Cited by 72 | PDF Full-text (350 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal [...] Read more.
Many marine bacteria produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) as a strategy for growth, adhering to solid surfaces, and to survive adverse conditions. There is growing interest in isolating new EPS producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from extreme marine environments such as deep-sea hydrothermal vents characterized by high pressure and temperature and heavy metal presence. Marine EPS-producing microorganisms have been also isolated from several extreme niches such as the cold marine environments typically of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, characterized by low temperature and low nutrient concentration, and the hypersaline marine environment found in a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems such as salt lakes and salterns. Most of their EPSs are heteropolysaccharides containing three or four different monosaccharides arranged in groups of 10 or less to form the repeating units. These polymers are often linear with an average molecular weight ranging from 1 × 105 to 3 × 105 Da. Some EPS are neutral macromolecules, but the majority of them are polyanionic for the presence of uronic acids or ketal-linked pyruvate or inorganic residues such as phosphate or sulfate. EPSs, forming a layer surrounding the cell, provide an effective protection against high or low temperature and salinity, or against possible predators. By examining their structure and chemical-physical characteristics it is possible to gain insight into their commercial application, and they are employed in several industries. Indeed EPSs produced by microorganisms from extreme habitats show biotechnological promise ranging from pharmaceutical industries, for their immunomodulatory and antiviral effects, bone regeneration and cicatrizing capacity, to food-processing industries for their peculiar gelling and thickening properties. Moreover, some EPSs are employed as biosurfactants and in detoxification mechanisms of petrochemical oil-polluted areas. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of current knowledge on EPSs produced by marine bacteria including symbiotic marine EPS-producing bacteria isolated from some marine annelid worms that live in extreme niches. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Marine Polysaccharides)
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Open AccessReview New Peptides Isolated from Lyngbya Species: A Review
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(6), 1817-1837; doi:10.3390/md8061817
Received: 13 April 2010 / Revised: 19 May 2010 / Accepted: 3 June 2010 / Published: 9 June 2010
Cited by 35 | PDF Full-text (293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cyanobacteria of the genusLyngbya have proven to be prodigious producers of secondary metabolites. Many of these compounds are bioactive and show potential for therapeutic use. This review covers peptides and hybrid polyketide-non-ribosomal peptides isolated from Lyngbya species. The structures and bioactivities [...] Read more.
Cyanobacteria of the genusLyngbya have proven to be prodigious producers of secondary metabolites. Many of these compounds are bioactive and show potential for therapeutic use. This review covers peptides and hybrid polyketide-non-ribosomal peptides isolated from Lyngbya species. The structures and bioactivities of 50 Lyngbya peptides which were reported since 2007 are presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algal Toxins)
Open AccessReview Update on Methodologies Available for Ciguatoxin Determination: Perspectives to Confront the Onset of Ciguatera Fish Poisoning in Europe
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(6), 1838-1907; doi:10.3390/md8061838
Received: 6 April 2010 / Revised: 18 May 2010 / Accepted: 10 June 2010 / Published: 14 June 2010
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (1133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe [...] Read more.
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) occurs mainly when humans ingest finfish contaminated with ciguatoxins (CTXs). The complexity and variability of such toxins have made it difficult to develop reliable methods to routinely monitor CFP with specificity and sensitivity. This review aims to describe the methodologies available for CTX detection, including those based on the toxicological, biochemical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties of CTXs. Selecting any of these methodological approaches for routine monitoring of ciguatera may be dependent upon the applicability of the method. However, identifying a reference validation method for CTXs is a critical and urgent issue, and is dependent upon the availability of certified CTX standards and the coordinated action of laboratories. Reports of CFP cases in European hospitals have been described in several countries, and are mostly due to travel to CFP endemic areas. Additionally, the recent detection of the CTX-producing tropical genus Gambierdiscus in the eastern Atlantic Ocean of the northern hemisphere and in the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the confirmation of CFP in the Canary Islands and possibly in Madeira, constitute other reasons to study the onset of CFP in Europe [1]. The question of the possible contribution of climate change to the distribution of toxin-producing microalgae and ciguateric fish is raised. The impact of ciguatera onset on European Union (EU) policies will be discussed with respect to EU regulations on marine toxins in seafood. Critical analysis and availability of methodologies for CTX determination is required for a rapid response to suspected CFP cases and to conduct sound CFP risk analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Biotoxins: Novel Issues about Old Compounds)
Open AccessReview Research and Application of Marine Microbial Enzymes: Status and Prospects
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(6), 1920-1934; doi:10.3390/md8061920
Received: 10 May 2010 / Revised: 15 June 2010 / Accepted: 22 June 2010 / Published: 23 June 2010
Cited by 41 | PDF Full-text (218 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over billions of years, the ocean has been regarded as the origin of life on Earth. The ocean includes the largest range of habitats, hosting the most life-forms. Competition amongst microorganisms for space and nutrients in the marine environment is a powerful [...] Read more.
Over billions of years, the ocean has been regarded as the origin of life on Earth. The ocean includes the largest range of habitats, hosting the most life-forms. Competition amongst microorganisms for space and nutrients in the marine environment is a powerful selective force, which has led to evolution. The evolution prompted the marine microorganisms to generate multifarious enzyme systems to adapt to the complicated marine environments. Therefore, marine microbial enzymes can offer novel biocatalysts with extraordinary properties. This review deals with the research and development work investigating the occurrence and bioprocessing of marine microbial enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes from the Sea: Sources, Molecular Biology and Bioprocesses)
Open AccessReview Ecological and Physiological Studies of Gymnodinium catenatum in the Mexican Pacific: A Review
Mar. Drugs 2010, 8(6), 1935-1961; doi:10.3390/md8061935
Received: 17 May 2010 / Revised: 3 June 2010 / Accepted: 10 June 2010 / Published: 23 June 2010
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (447 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most [...] Read more.
This review presents a detailed analysis of the state of knowledge of studies done in Mexico related to the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum, a paralytic toxin producer. This species was first reported in the Gulf of California in 1939; since then most studies in Mexico have focused on local blooms and seasonal variations. G. catenatum is most abundant during March and April, usually associated with water temperatures between 18 and 25 ºC and an increase in nutrients. In vitro studies of G. catenatum strains from different bays along the Pacific coast of Mexico show that this species can grow in wide ranges of salinities, temperatures, and N:P ratios. Latitudinal differences are observed in the toxicity and toxin profile, but the presence of dcSTX, dcGTX2-3, C1, and C2 are usual components. A common characteristic of the toxin profile found in shellfish, when G. catenatum is present in the coastal environment, is the detection of dcGTX2-3, dcSTX, C1, and C2. Few bioassay studies have reported effects in mollusks and lethal effects in mice, and shrimp; however no adverse effects have been observed in the copepod Acartia clausi. Interestingly, genetic sequencing of D1-D2 LSU rDNA revealed that it differs only in one base pair, compared with strains from other regions. Full article

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