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Pharmaceuticals, Volume 6, Issue 12 (December 2013), Pages 1451-1575

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Review

Open AccessReview Effect of Essential Oils on Pathogenic Bacteria
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(12), 1451-1474; doi:10.3390/ph6121451
Received: 22 September 2013 / Revised: 29 October 2013 / Accepted: 8 November 2013 / Published: 25 November 2013
Cited by 79 | PDF Full-text (252 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The increasing resistance of microorganisms to conventional chemicals and drugs is a serious and evident worldwide problem that has prompted research into the identification of new biocides with broad activity. Plants and their derivatives, such as essential oils, are often used in folk
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The increasing resistance of microorganisms to conventional chemicals and drugs is a serious and evident worldwide problem that has prompted research into the identification of new biocides with broad activity. Plants and their derivatives, such as essential oils, are often used in folk medicine. In nature, essential oils play an important role in the protection of plants. Essential oils contain a wide variety of secondary metabolites that are capable of inhibiting or slowing the growth of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Essential oils and their components have activity against a variety of targets, particularly the membrane and cytoplasm, and in some cases, they completely change the morphology of the cells. This brief review describes the activity of essential oils against pathogenic bacteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Agents)
Open AccessReview Glioblastoma Multiforme Therapy and Mechanisms of Resistance
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(12), 1475-1506; doi:10.3390/ph6121475
Received: 11 September 2013 / Revised: 4 November 2013 / Accepted: 12 November 2013 / Published: 25 November 2013
Cited by 31 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a grade IV brain tumor characterized by a heterogeneous population of cells that are highly infiltrative, angiogenic and resistant to chemotherapy. The current standard of care, comprised of surgical resection followed by radiation and the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide, only
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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a grade IV brain tumor characterized by a heterogeneous population of cells that are highly infiltrative, angiogenic and resistant to chemotherapy. The current standard of care, comprised of surgical resection followed by radiation and the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide, only provides patients with a 12–14 month survival period post-diagnosis. Long-term survival for GBM patients remains uncommon as cells with intrinsic or acquired resistance to treatment repopulate the tumor. In this review we will describe the mechanisms of resistance, and how they may be overcome to improve the survival of GBM patients by implementing novel chemotherapy drugs, new drug combinations and new approaches relating to DNA damage, angiogenesis and autophagy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemotherapeutic Agents)
Open AccessReview Aptamer-Based Therapeutics: New Approaches to Combat Human Viral Diseases
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(12), 1507-1542; doi:10.3390/ph6121507
Received: 17 October 2013 / Revised: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 15 November 2013 / Published: 25 November 2013
Cited by 16 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Viruses replicate inside the cells of an organism and continuously evolve to contend with an ever-changing environment. Many life-threatening diseases, such as AIDS, SARS, hepatitis and some cancers, are caused by viruses. Because viruses have small genome sizes and high mutability, there is
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Viruses replicate inside the cells of an organism and continuously evolve to contend with an ever-changing environment. Many life-threatening diseases, such as AIDS, SARS, hepatitis and some cancers, are caused by viruses. Because viruses have small genome sizes and high mutability, there is currently a lack of and an urgent need for effective treatment for many viral pathogens. One approach that has recently received much attention is aptamer-based therapeutics. Aptamer technology has high target specificity and versatility, i.e., any viral proteins could potentially be targeted. Consequently, new aptamer-based therapeutics have the potential to lead a revolution in the development of anti-infective drugs. Additionally, aptamers can potentially bind any targets and any pathogen that is theoretically amenable to rapid targeting, making aptamers invaluable tools for treating a wide range of diseases. This review will provide a broad, comprehensive overview of viral therapies that use aptamers. The aptamer selection process will be described, followed by an explanation of the potential for treating virus infection by aptamers. Recent progress and prospective use of aptamers against a large variety of human viruses, such as HIV-1, HCV, HBV, SCoV, Rabies virus, HPV, HSV and influenza virus, with particular focus on clinical development of aptamers will also be described. Finally, we will discuss the challenges of advancing antiviral aptamer therapeutics and prospects for future success. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptamer-Based Therapeutics)
Open AccessReview Antimicrobial Peptides
Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6(12), 1543-1575; doi:10.3390/ph6121543
Received: 22 October 2013 / Revised: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
Cited by 89 | PDF Full-text (575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial
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The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes) and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptide Drug Discovery and Development)

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