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Department of Biomedical and Chemical Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
Syracuse Biomaterials Institute, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
Department of Biology, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2013; in revised form: 21 November 2013 / Accepted: 25 November 2013 / Published: 28 November 2013
Abstract: The rapid increase in drug-resistant infections has presented a serious challenge to antimicrobial therapies. The failure of the most potent antibiotics to kill “superbugs” emphasizes the urgent need to develop other control agents. Here we review the history and new development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), a growing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. We summarize the major types of AMPs, their modes of action, and the common mechanisms of AMP resistance. In addition, we discuss the principles for designing effective AMPs and the potential of using AMPs to control biofilms (multicellular structures of bacteria embedded in extracellular matrixes) and persister cells (dormant phenotypic variants of bacterial cells that are highly tolerant to antibiotics).
Keywords: antimicrobial peptide; biofilm; persister
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MDPI and ACS Style
Bahar, A.A.; Ren, D. Antimicrobial Peptides. Pharmaceuticals 2013, 6, 1543-1575.
Bahar AA, Ren D. Antimicrobial Peptides. Pharmaceuticals. 2013; 6(12):1543-1575.
Bahar, Ali A.; Ren, Dacheng. 2013. "Antimicrobial Peptides." Pharmaceuticals 6, no. 12: 1543-1575.