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Pharmaceuticals, Volume 4, Issue 2 (February 2011), Pages 215-428

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Magnesium-Molybate Compounds as Matrix for 99Mo/99mTc Generators
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(2), 215-232; doi:10.3390/ph4020215
Received: 30 November 2010 / Revised: 5 January 2011 / Accepted: 13 January 2011 / Published: 25 January 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (906 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work reports the preparation of a 99mTc generator based on conversion of 99Mo produced by neutron irradiation, into insoluble magnesium 99Mo-molybdates compounds as matrix. The effect of magnesium salt types and concentration, Mg:Mo molar ratios, pH of molybdate solutions,
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This work reports the preparation of a 99mTc generator based on conversion of 99Mo produced by neutron irradiation, into insoluble magnesium 99Mo-molybdates compounds as matrix. The effect of magnesium salt types and concentration, Mg:Mo molar ratios, pH of molybdate solutions, eluate volume as well as the addition order of molybdate and magnesium solutions’ influences on the final 99mTc were evaluated. Polymetalates and polymolybdates salts either crystallized or amorphous were obtained depending on the magnesium salt and Mg:Mo molar ratio used in matrix preparation. 99Mo/99mTc generator production based on magnesium-99Mo molybdate compounds allow reduction of preparation time and eliminates the use of specialized installations. The best generator performances were attained using matrices prepared from 0.1 mol/L MgCl2·6H2O solutions, ammonium molybdate solutions at pH 7 and at a Mg:Mo molar ratio of 1:1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiochemistry)
Open AccessArticle Pharmacological Evaluation of 3-Carbomethoxy Fentanyl in Mice
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(2), 233-243; doi:10.3390/ph4020233
Received: 15 December 2010 / Revised: 13 January 2011 / Accepted: 18 January 2011 / Published: 25 January 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In many animal species, as well as in humans, high doses of fentanyl (F) produce marked neurotoxic effects, such as muscular rigidity and respiratory depression. The antinociception (hot-plate test), impairment of motor coordination (rotarod test) and acute toxicity of intraperitoneal newly synthesized analogs,
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In many animal species, as well as in humans, high doses of fentanyl (F) produce marked neurotoxic effects, such as muscular rigidity and respiratory depression. The antinociception (hot-plate test), impairment of motor coordination (rotarod test) and acute toxicity of intraperitoneal newly synthesized analogs, (±)cis-3-carbomethoxy- fentanyl (C) and (±)trans-3-carbomethoxyfentanyl (T) were evaluated in mice. The compounds tested induced antinociception, impairment of performance on the rotarod, and lethality in a dose-dependent manner. The relative order of antinociceptive potency was similar to motor impairment potency, as well as lethality: F > C > T. Naloxone hydrochloride (1 mg/kg; sc) abolished all the effects observed, suggesting that they are mediated via opioid receptors, most probably of m type. There were no significant differences between the therapeutic indices of F, C and T. It is concluded, the introduction of 3-carbomethoxy group in the piperidine ring of the fentanyl skeleton reduced the potency, but did not affect tolerability and safety of the compound. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opioids)

Review

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Open AccessReview GPCRs Revisited: New Insights Lead to Novel Drugs
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(2), 244-272; doi:10.3390/ph4020244
Received: 6 December 2010 / Revised: 22 December 2010 / Accepted: 18 January 2011 / Published: 25 January 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (216 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
GPCRs play a critical role in human physiology and are a prime target for drug discovery globally. Novel insights into the functions of GPCRs are providing unique approaches to modulate these proteins to generate unique drug candidates. Next generation ligands include those with
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GPCRs play a critical role in human physiology and are a prime target for drug discovery globally. Novel insights into the functions of GPCRs are providing unique approaches to modulate these proteins to generate unique drug candidates. Next generation ligands include those with novel pharmacologies such as allosteric regulators as well pepducins, that affect the interaction of GPCRs with G proteins, to either block selective receptor signaling pathways or mimic the actions of intracellular domains of receptors, thereby activating GPCRs to signal selectively to intracellular pathways. We will review these new concepts and then discuss how they may be exploited using modern discovery technologies to provide novel drug candidates for the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GPCR Based Drug Discovery)
Open AccessReview Expanding the Concept of G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR) Dimer Asymmetry towards GPCR-Interacting Proteins
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(2), 273-284; doi:10.3390/ph4020273
Received: 6 December 2010 / Revised: 7 January 2011 / Accepted: 14 January 2011 / Published: 25 January 2011
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (289 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), major targets of drug discovery, are organized in dimeric and/or oligomeric clusters. The minimal oligomeric unit, the dimer, is composed of two protomers, which can behave differently within the dimer. Several examples of GPCR asymmetry within dimers at the
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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), major targets of drug discovery, are organized in dimeric and/or oligomeric clusters. The minimal oligomeric unit, the dimer, is composed of two protomers, which can behave differently within the dimer. Several examples of GPCR asymmetry within dimers at the level of ligand binding, ligand-promoted conformational changes, conformational changes within transmembrane domains, G protein coupling, and most recently GPCR-interacting proteins (GIPs), have been reported in the literature. Asymmetric organization of GPCR dimers has important implications on GPCR function and drug design. Indeed, the extension of the “asymmetry concept” to GIPs adds a new level of specific therapeutic intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue GPCR Based Drug Discovery)
Open AccessReview Monoaminergic Antidepressants in the Relief of Pain: Potential Therapeutic Utility of Triple Reuptake Inhibitors (TRIs)
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(2), 285-342; doi:10.3390/ph4020285
Received: 22 November 2010 / Revised: 1 January 1970 / Accepted: 21 January 2011 / Published: 26 January 2011
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (423 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over 75% of depressed patients suffer from painful symptoms predicting a greater severity and a less favorable outcome of depression. Imaging, anatomical and functional studies have demonstrated the existence of common brain structures, neuronal pathways and neurotransmitters in depression and pain. In particular,
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Over 75% of depressed patients suffer from painful symptoms predicting a greater severity and a less favorable outcome of depression. Imaging, anatomical and functional studies have demonstrated the existence of common brain structures, neuronal pathways and neurotransmitters in depression and pain. In particular, the ascending serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways originating from the raphe nuclei and the locus coeruleus; respectively, send projections to the limbic system. Such pathways control many of the psychological functions that are disturbed in depression and in the perception of pain. On the other hand, the descending pathways, from monoaminergic nuclei to the spinal cord, are specifically implicated in the inhibition of nociception providing rationale for the use of serotonin (5-HT) and/or norepinephrine (NE) reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, NRIs, SNRIs), in the relief of pain. Compelling evidence suggests that dopamine (DA) is also involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depression. Indeed, recent insights have demonstrated a central role for DA in analgesia through an action at both the spinal and suprasinal levels including brain regions such as the periaqueductal grey (PAG), the thalamus, the basal ganglia and the limbic system. In this context, dopaminergic antidepressants (i.e., containing dopaminergic activity), such as bupropion, nomifensine and more recently triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs), might represent new promising therapeutic tools in the treatment of painful symptoms with depression. Nevertheless, whether the addition of the dopaminergic component produces more robust effects than single- or dual-acting agents, has yet to be demonstrated. This article reviews the main pathways regulating pain transmission in relation with the monoaminergic systems. It then focuses on the current knowledge regarding the in vivo pharmacological properties and mechanism of action of monoaminergic antidepressants including SSRIs, NRIs, SNRIs and TRIs. Finally, a synthesis of the preclinical studies supporting the efficacy of these antidepressants in analgesia is also addressed in order to highlight the relative contribution of 5-HT, NE and DA to nociception. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antidepressants)
Open AccessReview Opioid Actions in Primary-Afferent Fibers—Involvement in Analgesia and Anesthesia
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(2), 343-365; doi:10.3390/ph4020343
Received: 14 December 2010 / Revised: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 25 January 2011 / Published: 28 January 2011
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Opioids inhibit glutamatergic excitatory transmission from the periphery by activating G-protein coupled opioid receptors in the central terminals of primary-afferent neurons in the spinal substantia gelatinosa, resulting in antinociception. Opioid receptor activation in the peripheral terminals of primary-afferent neurons inhibits the production of
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Opioids inhibit glutamatergic excitatory transmission from the periphery by activating G-protein coupled opioid receptors in the central terminals of primary-afferent neurons in the spinal substantia gelatinosa, resulting in antinociception. Opioid receptor activation in the peripheral terminals of primary-afferent neurons inhibits the production of action potentials in response to nociceptive stimuli given to the periphery, leading to antinociception. Opioids also exhibit a local anesthetic effect without opioid receptor activation in peripheral nerve fibers. This review article will focus on analgesia and anesthesia produced by the actions of opioids on primary-afferent fibers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opioids)
Open AccessReview Opioid Antagonists May Reverse Endogenous Opiate “Dependence” in the Treatment of Self-Injurious Behavior
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(2), 366-381; doi:10.3390/ph4020366
Received: 10 December 2010 / Revised: 22 January 2011 / Accepted: 25 January 2011 / Published: 28 January 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (180 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a primary reason that individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD) are either retained in restrictive environments or are administered psychotropic medication. There are no known causes and no universally accepted treatments for this complex behavior among individuals with NDD. There
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Self-injurious behavior (SIB) is a primary reason that individuals with neurodevelopmental disabilities (NDD) are either retained in restrictive environments or are administered psychotropic medication. There are no known causes and no universally accepted treatments for this complex behavior among individuals with NDD. There is developing evidence, however, that individuals exhibiting SIB have a disturbance of the opiate-mediated pain and pleasure system. One hypothesis is that SIB reflects insensitivity to pain and general sensory depression (hypoalgesia), perhaps related to chronic elevation of endogenous opiates. For instance, many self-injurious individuals do not exhibit the usual signs of pain after their “injurious” behavior. Moreover, for some individuals the addictive properties of elevated endogenous opiates (euphoria) may be responsible for maintaining their SIB. In this perspective, SIB may be viewed as an addiction because it supplies the "fix" for tolerant, down-regulated opiate receptors. Reports that levels of endogenous opiates at rest and after SIB episodes predict positive responses to opiate blockers (e.g., naltrexone) provide further support for opiate-mediated SIB and form the basis for a rational treatment strategy. Although the long term effects of opiate blockers on SIB are unknown, reduction in SIB following acute treatment provides support that a specific biological system may be dysregulated in a subgroup of patients. It is concluded that naltrexone produces a clinically significant reduction in the serious and life-threatening behavior of self injury for individuals who have not been responsive to any other type of treatment. Several suggestions and cautions are provided for regimens of naltrexone treatment of SIB. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opioids)
Open AccessReview Neuroactive Multifunctional Tacrine Congeners with Cholinesterase, Anti-Amyloid Aggregation and Neuroprotective Properties
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(2), 382-418; doi:10.3390/ph4020382
Received: 29 December 2010 / Revised: 3 February 2011 / Accepted: 12 February 2011 / Published: 18 February 2011
Cited by 19 | PDF Full-text (381 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The review summarizes research into the highly relevant topics of cholinesterase and amyloid aggregation inhibitors connected to tacrine congeners, both of which are associated with neurogenerative diseases. Various opinions will be discussed regarding the dual binding site inhibitors which are characterized by increased
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The review summarizes research into the highly relevant topics of cholinesterase and amyloid aggregation inhibitors connected to tacrine congeners, both of which are associated with neurogenerative diseases. Various opinions will be discussed regarding the dual binding site inhibitors which are characterized by increased inhibitor potency against acetylcholin/butyrylcholine esterase and amyloid formation. It is suggested that these compounds can both raise levels of acetylcholine by binding to the active site, and also prevent amyloid aggregation. In connection with this problem, the mono/dual binding of the multifunctional derivatives of tacrine, their mode of action and their neuroprotective activities are reported. The influence of low molecular compounds on protein amyloid aggregation, which might be considered as a potential therapeutic strategy in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease is also reported. Finally, attention is paid to some physico-chemical factors, such as desolvation energies describing the transfer of the substrate solvated by water, the metal-chelating properties of biometals reacting with amyloid precursor protein, amyloid beta peptide and tau protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neuroactive Compounds)
Open AccessReview Metallo-β-Lactamases and Aptamer-Based Inhibition
Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(2), 419-428; doi:10.3390/ph4020419
Received: 14 January 2011 / Revised: 8 February 2011 / Accepted: 16 February 2011 / Published: 18 February 2011
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (358 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has resulted in the need for new antibiotics. β-Lactam based drugs are the most predominantly prescribed antibiotics to combat bacterial infections; however, production of β-lactamases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of the β-lactam bond of this class of antibiotics,
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An evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has resulted in the need for new antibiotics. β-Lactam based drugs are the most predominantly prescribed antibiotics to combat bacterial infections; however, production of β-lactamases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of the β-lactam bond of this class of antibiotics, by pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, are rendering them useless. Some inhibitors of β-lactamases have been found, but there are no inhibitors against a class of β-lactamases known as metallo-β-lactamases, and it has been reported that the number of bacteria that produce metallo-β-lactamases is on the rise. Finding inhibitors of metallo-β-lactamases is thus an urgent necessity. One way to approach the problem is by employing the combinatorial method SELEX. The SELEX method is significant in discovering and producing new classes of inhibitors, as well as providing insight into the development of these inhibitors and paves the way for future aptamer applications that further novel drug discovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Aptamer-Based Therapeutics)
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