Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4(2), 343-365; doi:10.3390/ph4020343
Review

Opioid Actions in Primary-Afferent Fibers—Involvement in Analgesia and Anesthesia

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Received: 14 December 2010; in revised form: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 25 January 2011 / Published: 28 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opioids)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Opioids inhibit glutamatergic excitatory transmission from the periphery by activating G-protein coupled opioid receptors in the central terminals of primary-afferent neurons in the spinal substantia gelatinosa, resulting in antinociception. Opioid receptor activation in the peripheral terminals of primary-afferent neurons inhibits the production of action potentials in response to nociceptive stimuli given to the periphery, leading to antinociception. Opioids also exhibit a local anesthetic effect without opioid receptor activation in peripheral nerve fibers. This review article will focus on analgesia and anesthesia produced by the actions of opioids on primary-afferent fibers.
Keywords: opioids; spinal dorsal horn; excitatory synaptic transmission; primary-afferent fiber; action potential conduction
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kumamoto, E.; Mizuta, K.; Fujita, T. Opioid Actions in Primary-Afferent Fibers—Involvement in Analgesia and Anesthesia. Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4, 343-365.

AMA Style

Kumamoto E, Mizuta K, Fujita T. Opioid Actions in Primary-Afferent Fibers—Involvement in Analgesia and Anesthesia. Pharmaceuticals. 2011; 4(2):343-365.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kumamoto, Eiichi; Mizuta, Kotaro; Fujita, Tsugumi. 2011. "Opioid Actions in Primary-Afferent Fibers—Involvement in Analgesia and Anesthesia." Pharmaceuticals 4, no. 2: 343-365.

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