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Opioid Actions in Primary-Afferent Fibers—Involvement in Analgesia and Anesthesia
Department of Physiology, Saga Medical School,5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2010; in revised form: 17 January 2011 / Accepted: 25 January 2011 / Published: 28 January 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Opioids
Abstract: Opioids inhibit glutamatergic excitatory transmission from the periphery by activating G-protein coupled opioid receptors in the central terminals of primary-afferent neurons in the spinal substantia gelatinosa, resulting in antinociception. Opioid receptor activation in the peripheral terminals of primary-afferent neurons inhibits the production of action potentials in response to nociceptive stimuli given to the periphery, leading to antinociception. Opioids also exhibit a local anesthetic effect without opioid receptor activation in peripheral nerve fibers. This review article will focus on analgesia and anesthesia produced by the actions of opioids on primary-afferent fibers.
Keywords: opioids; spinal dorsal horn; excitatory synaptic transmission; primary-afferent fiber; action potential conduction
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MDPI and ACS Style
Kumamoto, E.; Mizuta, K.; Fujita, T. Opioid Actions in Primary-Afferent Fibers—Involvement in Analgesia and Anesthesia. Pharmaceuticals 2011, 4, 343-365.
Kumamoto E, Mizuta K, Fujita T. Opioid Actions in Primary-Afferent Fibers—Involvement in Analgesia and Anesthesia. Pharmaceuticals. 2011; 4(2):343-365.
Kumamoto, Eiichi; Mizuta, Kotaro; Fujita, Tsugumi. 2011. "Opioid Actions in Primary-Afferent Fibers—Involvement in Analgesia and Anesthesia." Pharmaceuticals 4, no. 2: 343-365.