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Molecules 2016, 21(5), 543; doi:10.3390/molecules21050543

Ptaquiloside in Irish Bracken Ferns and Receiving Waters, with Implications for Land Managers

1
Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland
2
Department of Civil Engineering, National University of Ireland, Galway H91 HX31, Ireland
3
Centre for Chemical Safety and Stewardship, Fera Science Ltd., Sand Hutton, York YO41 1LZ, UK
4
National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway H91 HX31, Ireland
5
Earth and Ocean Sciences, School of Natural Sciences and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway H91 HX31, Ireland
6
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg DK-1871, Denmark
7
College of Agriculture Food and Rural Enterprise Greenmount Campus, 45 Tirgracy Road, Muckamore, Antrim BT41 4PS, UK
8
School of Mathematics, Statistics and Applied Mathematics, National University of Ireland, Galway H91 HX31, Ireland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mary Fletcher
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 14 April 2016 / Accepted: 19 April 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1801 KB, uploaded 26 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Ptaquiloside, along with other natural phytotoxins, is receiving increased attention from scientists and land use managers. There is an urgent need to increase empirical evidence to understand the scale of phytotoxin mobilisation and potential to enter into the environment. In this study the risk of ptaquiloside to drinking water was assessed by quantifying ptaquiloside in the receiving waters at three drinking water abstraction sites across Ireland and in bracken fronds surrounding the abstraction sites. We also investigated the impact of different management regimes (spraying, cutting and rolling) on ptaquiloside concentrations at plot-scale in six locations in Northern Ireland, UK. Ptaquiloside concentrations were determined using recent advances in the use of LC-MS for the detection and quantification of ptaquiloside. The results indicate that ptaquiloside is present in bracken stands surrounding drinking water abstractions in Ireland, and ptaquiloside concentrations were also observed in the receiving waters. Furthermore, spraying was found to be the most effective bracken management regime observed in terms of reducing ptaquiloside load. Increased awareness is vital on the implications of managing land with extensive bracken stands. View Full-Text
Keywords: ptaquiloside; bracken; drinking water; phytochemicals; land management; Ireland ptaquiloside; bracken; drinking water; phytochemicals; land management; Ireland
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MDPI and ACS Style

O’Driscoll, C.; Ramwell, C.; Harhen, B.; Morrison, L.; Clauson-Kaas, F.; Hansen, H.C.B.; Campbell, G.; Sheahan, J.; Misstear, B.; Xiao, L. Ptaquiloside in Irish Bracken Ferns and Receiving Waters, with Implications for Land Managers. Molecules 2016, 21, 543.

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