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Molecules 2016, 21(5), 557; doi:10.3390/molecules21050557

Changes in the Subpopulations of Porcine Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Induced by Exposure to Low Doses of Zearalenone (ZEN) and Deoxynivalenol (DON)

Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13/29, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
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Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 9 March 2016 / Revised: 18 April 2016 / Accepted: 23 April 2016 / Published: 27 April 2016
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Abstract

Zearalenone and deoxynivalenol are secondary metabolites of fungi of the genus Fusarium. The presence of mycotoxins in cereals and the resulting contamination of feeds and foods pose health risks for animals and humans. The dangers associated with high doses of mycotoxins have been extensively researched but very little is known about NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) doses or exposure to a combination of mycotoxins (mixed mycotoxicoses). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of six-week exposure to NOAEL doses of individual and combined mycotoxins on the subpopulations of CD4+8, CD48+ and CD4+8+ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of pigs. The experiment was performed on 72 gilts with average body weight of 25 kg, divided into three experimental groups (E1, E2 and E3, administered zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and ZEN + DON, respectively, on a daily basis) and a control group (C) receiving placebo. Changes in lymphocyte subpopulations were evaluated by flow cytometry at weekly intervals (experimental days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42). A linear increase in the percentage of CD4+8+ lymphocytes was highly correlated with time (r = 0.682) in group C. The correlations and linear increase in the above subpopulation were disrupted in the remaining groups. In group E3, a statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease in CD4+8+ counts was observed in week 5, which could point to a transient depletion of regulatory mechanisms of immune responses. The noted results also suggest that in mixed mycotoxicosis, ZEN and DON exerted stronger immunomodulatory effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: deoxynivalenol; zearalenone; pig; flow cytometry; lymphocytes CD4+8; CD48+ and CD4+8+ deoxynivalenol; zearalenone; pig; flow cytometry; lymphocytes CD4+8; CD48+ and CD4+8+
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dąbrowski, M.; Obremski, K.; Gajęcka, M.; Gajęcki, M.T.; Zielonka, Ł. Changes in the Subpopulations of Porcine Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Induced by Exposure to Low Doses of Zearalenone (ZEN) and Deoxynivalenol (DON). Molecules 2016, 21, 557.

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