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Molecules 2016, 21(5), 556; doi:10.3390/molecules21050556

Military Importance of Natural Toxins and Their Analogs

1
Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Sítná sq. 3105, 272 01 Kladno, Czech Republic
2
Oritest spol. s r.o., Staropramenná 17, 156 00 Prague, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Derek J. McPhee and Mary Fletcher
Received: 8 March 2016 / Revised: 10 April 2016 / Accepted: 18 April 2016 / Published: 28 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Toxins)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1478 KB, uploaded 28 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

Toxin weapon research, development, production and the ban on its uses is an integral part of international law, with particular attention paid to the protection against these weapons. In spite of this, hazards associated with toxins cannot be completely excluded. Some of these hazards are also pointed out in the present review. The article deals with the characteristics and properties of natural toxins and synthetic analogs potentially constituting the basis of toxin weapons. It briefly describes the history of military research and the use of toxins from distant history up to the present age. With respect to effective disarmament conventions, it mentions certain contemporary concepts of possible toxin applications for military purposes and the protection of public order (suppression of riots); it also briefly refers to the question of terrorism. In addition, it deals with certain traditional as well as modern technologies of the research, synthesis, and use of toxins, which can affect the continuing development of toxin weapons. These are, for example, cases of new toxins from natural sources, their chemical synthesis, production of synthetic analogs, the possibility of using methods of genetic engineering and modern biotechnologies or the possible applications of nanotechnology and certain pharmaceutical methods for the effective transfer of toxins into the organism. The authors evaluate the military importance of toxins based on their comparison with traditional chemical warfare agents. They appeal to the ethics of the scientific work as a principal condition for the prevention of toxin abuse in wars, military conflicts, as well as in non-military attacks. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxins; toxin weapons; biological weapons; chemical weapons toxins; toxin weapons; biological weapons; chemical weapons
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Pitschmann, V.; Hon, Z. Military Importance of Natural Toxins and Their Analogs. Molecules 2016, 21, 556.

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