The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these
manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers
submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Host Cell Virus Entry Mediated by Australian Bat Lyssavirus Envelope G Glycoprotein
Authors: Dawn L. Weir 1, Peter A Reid, Lin-Fa Wang 2,3 and Christopher C. Broder 1*
1 Department of Microbiology, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
2 CSIRO Livestock Industries, Australian Animal Health Laboratory, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
3 Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore 169857
Abstract: Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a recently emerged rhabdovirus of the genus lyssavirus considered endemic in Australian bat populations that causes a neurological disease in people indistinguishable from clinical rabies. There are two distinct variants of ABLV, one that circulates in frugivorous bats (genus Pteropus) and the other in insectivorous microbats (genus Saccolaimus). Three fatal human cases of ABLV infection, manifested as an acute encephalitis but with variable incubation periods, have been reported with the third case in 2013. Importantly, two equine cases also arose recently in 2013; the first occurrence of ABLV in a species other than bats or humans. ABLV infects host cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and subsequent pH-dependent fusion facilitated by its single fusogenic envelope glycoprotein (G), but the specific host factors and pathways involved in ABLV entry have not been determined. To explore the cross-species transmission potential of ABLV and to characterize the ABLV entry pathway, we developed maxGFP-encoding recombinant vesicular stomatitis viruses that express ABLV G glycoproteins to examine ABLV host cell tropism and virus entry as a function of G. Target cell lines derived from numerous mammalian species were permissive to ABLV, indicating that the ABLV host cell receptor(s) is highly conserved. Interestingly, the two ABLV variants exhibited distinct in vitro tropisms, suggesting that they can utilize alternate host factors for entry. In further support of this distinction, we found that dextran sulfate was a potent inhibitor of viral entry mediated by the Pteropus variant, but not entry mediated by the Saccolaimus variant. Proposed rabies virus (RV) receptors were not sufficient to permit ABLV entry into resistant cells, suggesting that ABLV utilizes a unique receptor or co-receptor for host cell entry that has yet to be identified. Disruption of lipid raft integrity through sequestration of cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin significantly inhibited ABLV G-mediated entry into HEK293T cells, suggesting that the unknown ABLV receptor(s) may be localized or enriched in lipid rafts. Using a combination of chemical and molecular approaches, we also provide evidence that the predominant pathway utilized by ABLV to enter HEK293T cells is clathrin-mediated and that actin is required for productive infection. We also show that ABLV-G mediated entry is Rab5 dependent, but Rab7 and Rab11 independent, indicating that ABLV likely enters cells through an early endosomal compartment.
Type of Paper: Article
Title: SVCV and the Innate Immune Response of Cyprinids
Author: Alberto Falco
Affiliation: Cell Biology and Immunology Group, Wageningen Institute of Animal Sciences, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 338, Wageningen 6700 AH, The Netherlands; Tel.: +34 660210531. E-mail address: email@example.com
Short Abstract: As stated by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), cyprinids are the most cultured fresh water fish family worldwide. However, their production efficiency is significantly reduced by infectious disease outbreaks and, within them, it is remarkable the severe effects caused by the spring viremia of carp (SVC) disease, which causative agent is the spring viremia of carp rhabdovirus (SVCV, genus Vesiculovirus). In the present work, significant advances in the study of SVCV as well as the innate immune responses against this viral infection in cyprinids will be reviewed, focusing on the recognition receptors and their signalling pathways, the interferon (IFN) system and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs)
Keywords: SVCV, PRR, IFN, ISG, Cyprinus carpio, carp, fish