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Special Issue "Feature Papers"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Associate Editor
Prof. Dr. Thomas Hohn

Head Molecular Plant Virology, Botanical Institute, University of Basel, Section of Plant Physiology, Hebelstrasse 1, CH-4056 Basel, Switzerland
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Special Issue Information

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Open AccessCommunication High-Level Systemic Expression of Conserved Influenza Epitope in Plants on the Surface of Rod-Shaped Chimeric Particles
Viruses 2014, 6(4), 1789-1800; doi:10.3390/v6041789
Received: 20 November 2013 / Revised: 10 March 2014 / Accepted: 1 April 2014 / Published: 21 April 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3137 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Recombinant viruses based on the cDNA copy of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genome carrying different versions of the conserved M2e epitope from influenza virus A cloned into the coat protein (CP) gene were obtained and partially characterized by our group previously; cysteines
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Recombinant viruses based on the cDNA copy of the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genome carrying different versions of the conserved M2e epitope from influenza virus A cloned into the coat protein (CP) gene were obtained and partially characterized by our group previously; cysteines in the human consensus M2e sequence were changed to serine residues. This work intends to show some biological properties of these viruses following plant infections. Agroinfiltration experiments on Nicotiana benthamiana confirmed the efficient systemic expression of M2e peptides, and two point amino acid substitutions in recombinant CPs significantly influenced the symptoms and development of viral infections. Joint expression of RNA interference suppressor protein p19 from tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) did not affect the accumulation of CP-M2e-ser recombinant protein in non-inoculated leaves. RT-PCR analysis of RNA isolated from either infected leaves or purified TMV-M2e particles proved the genetic stability of TMV‑based viral vectors. Immunoelectron microscopy of crude plant extracts demonstrated that foreign epitopes are located on the surface of chimeric virions. The rod‑shaped geometry of plant-produced M2e epitopes is different from the icosahedral or helical filamentous arrangement of M2e antigens on the carrier virus-like particles (VLP) described earlier. Thereby, we created a simple and efficient system that employs agrobacteria and plant viral vectors in order to produce a candidate broad-spectrum flu vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Recovery and Detection of Hepatitis A Virus from Oyster Digestive Tissues Using Soybean Agglutinin Linked Magnetic Bead Separation
Authors: Sang-Mu Ko 1, Joseph Kwon 2, Jong Soon Choi 3, Hee-Min Lee 4, Bipin Vaidya 4, Myung-Joo Oh 1, Hyeun-Jong Bae 5,6, Se-Young Cho 4, Kyung-Seo Oh 4,6 and Duwoon Kim 4,6*
Affiliations: 1 Department of Aqualife Medicine, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749, Jeonnam, Korea
2 Korea Basic Science Institute, Gwangju 500-757, Korea
3 Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-806, Korea
4 Department of Food Science and Technology and Functional Food Research Center, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757,Korea
5 Department of Forest Products and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500–757, Korea
6 Bioenergy Research Center, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500–757, Korea
Abstract: The accuracy and sensitivity of current PCR-based methods for foodborne viruses is highly dependent on elution buffer solutions to remove the virus from food surfaces. In this study, we present a rapid and cost-effective protocol for the recovery and detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) from oyster digestive tissues. The effects of pH (2.0–10.0) and metal ions on the efficiency of recovery of HAV and recombinant HAV protein (rHAV, VP1524–633 aa) from the digestive tissues were investigated.  Viral recovery from the tissues with buffer solution of pH 4.0 and Fe++ was effective as compared to other pHs and metal ions. As an alternative to HAV-specific antibody dependent immunomagnetic separation, an ELISA was used to identify an efficient HAV binding proteins from six lectins including Arachis hypogaea, Dolichos biflorus, Helix pomatia, Ricinus communis, Ulex europaeus, and Glycine max (soybean) agglutinin. Soybean agglutinin showed significantly higher relative binding affinity to HAV than other lectins. The eluted HAV was concentrated by soybean agglutinin-linked magnetic bead separation (SMS) within 30 min of incubation prior to reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay. The SMS combined with RT-PCR detected HAV from 10-1 to 10-4 dilutions of a HAV stock (104 TCID50/ml). The results suggest that the SMS assay combined with RT-PCR is practically feasible to detect HAV in short incubation time.

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Molecular Evidence and Sequence Analysis of a Natural Subgroup II Homozygote of Cucumber mosaic virus
Authors: Zuodong Qin
Affiliations: College of Life Science and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing, 210009, Jiangsu, China
Abstract: Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is a typical member of the genus Cucumovirus, which has a tripartite RNA virus and has been divided into three subgroups, designated as IA, IB, and II. At the present time, almost all reported CMV strains belong to subgroups IA and IB. In our present work, a CMV strain, named CMV-Mb, was obtained from a Musa basjoo plant. The complete sequence of CMV-Mb genomic RNAs has been determined and analyzed. The results of sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that CMV-Mb is a unique natural Subgroup II strain in the Musa plant and also can serve as an additional reference strain for the molecular epidemiology of subgroup II Cucumovirus.
Keywords: Cucumber mosaic virus; Musa; sequence analysis

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Composition and Antiviral Activity of the Essential Oil of Micromeria croatica (Pers.) Schott (Lamiaceae)
Authors: E. VUKO 1*, G. RUSAK 2, V. DUNKIĆ 1, D. KREMER 3, I. KOSALEC 3, B. RAĐA1 and N. BEZIĆ 1
Affiliations: 1 Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Split, Teslina 12, 21000 Split, Croatia
Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Roosveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, A. Kovačića 1, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
Abstract: The chemical composition of the essential oil of endemic Micromeria croatica (Pers.) Schott (Lamiaceae) growing on three localities on Mt Velebit (Croatia) was identified by GC and GC-MS. The main components of essential oil were determined as sesquiterpene constituents with β-caryophyllene (Bojinac population), and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with caryophyllene oxide (Bačić kuk and Stupačinovo populations). The essential oil, β-caryophyllene and caryophyllene oxide reduced number of local lesions on the leaves of Chenopodium quinoa plants infected with cucumber mosaic virus and an associated satellite. Aside from the antiviral activity, for the first time the correlation between the antiviral effect of oil and the main components of the oil was investigated. Antiviral activity of essential oil of plants from the locality Bojinac positively correlated with the antiviral activity of β-caryophyllene while the activity of the oils of plants from localities Bačić kuk and Stupačinovo positively correlated with the activity of caryophyllene oxide.

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Enhanced Transgene Expression by Co-expressing Mild Truncated Form of Virus-Encoded RNA Silencing Suppressor MYMIV-AC2
Authors: Vikash Kumar 1,2,3 , Sumona Karjee 1, Sunil Kumar Mukherjee 1 and Manchikatla Venkat Rajam 2*
Affiliations: 1 Plant Molecular Biology Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, India
2 Plant Polyamine, Transgenic and RNAi Laboratory, Department of Genetics, University of Delhi, South Campus, Benito Juarez Road, New Delhi, 110021, India
Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Lerner Research Institute, Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, 9500 Euclid Avenue/NC10, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA
Abstract: In an effort to improve crop quality by developing transgenic plants often faces problem in the transgene expression due to RNA silencing. It is believed that this has evolved as a defense mechanism against virus infection, where RNA silencing leads to viral transcript degradation. Interestingly, several viruses encodes for protein(s) called RNA silencing suppressor (RSS), which effectively counteract the endogenous RNA silencing activity of plants. Several viral suppressors are known, however, only few are demonstrated with potential to enhance the transgene expression. Recently, the AC2 suppressor from Mungbean Yellow Mosaic India Virus (MYMIV) has been used to elevate and maintain transgene expression. However, one major problem associated with RSSs is that they also affect normal plant development. They induce growth abnormality, sterility and developmental anomalies and MYMIV-AC2 is no exception. In this study, we identified that the MYMIV-AC2∆121-136 deletion mutant has RNA silencing suppressor activity with very mild effects on transgenic plant development. Upon introduction of MYMIV-AC2∆121-136 to a tobacco plant expressing low levels of topoisomerase I (TopoI) enhanced TopoI expression several fold in T0 lines. Based on these observations we propose that MYMIV-AC2∆121-136 could be a very valuable tool to enhance the transgene expression by counteracting the host plant’s RNA silencing activity without compromising growth abnormality and developmental anomalies.

Type of Paper: Review
Title: Important Stone Fruit Viruses and Approaches towards Management
Author: Vanita Chandel
Affiliation: Amity Institute of Virology and Immunology, Amity Campus Sector - 125, Noida- 201303, India
Abstract: Stone fruits includes almond, apricot, cherry, nectarine, peach and plum and these are grown on commercial scale in China, European Union and US and on a small scale in the temperate regions of India. Stone fruits are known to be susceptible to many virus and viroid diseases. Losses in terms of quality and quantity are reported from all over the world due the viral infections in these fruits. In the present review we are discussing the groups of viruses infecting these fruits and individual members of these groups with respect to their host, symptoms, transmission, genome, diagnostics and management studies. Important viruses infecting these fruits are: Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Prunus necrotic ring spot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), American plum line pattern virus (APLPV), Plum pox virus (PPV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apricot latent virus (ApLV) and Plum bark necrosis stem pitting associated virus (PBNSPaV).

Type of Paper: Article
Title: Expression in Plants of Sheep Pox Viral Gene under the Control of Plant Viral Regulatory Elements
Authors: Daniyar K. Beisenov, Gulshan E. Stanbekova and Bulat K. Iskakov
Affliation: Aitkhozhin Institute of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, Almaty, Kazakhstan
Abstract: Sheep pox virus (SPPV) is a causative agent of highly contagious disease of small ruminants and can provoke epizootics. In the Republic of Kazakhstan and Central Asia an attenuated SPPV is used as vaccine for prophylactic control of disease. Plant-based production of immunogenic recombinant antigens is a good alternative for development of subunit vaccines against sheep pox.
SPPV gene for structural protein that is ortholog of Vaccinia viral A27L (SPPV-NISKHI-113; GenBank ID: NP_659689) was PCR-amplified from genomic (g)DNA of SPPV strain “NISKHI” and cloned first into bacterial vector pET19b for fusion with 10xHis-tag and then was transferred into plant vector pCAMBIA2300.
Recombinant DNA constructs in plant vector contained the following cis-regulatory sequences: 35S CaMV promoter; 5'-untranslated regions of either tobacco etch virus, alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4, potato virus Y, or artificial translational enhancer “5xARC1”; transcription terminator of nopaline synthase gene. The coding sequence of SPPV-NISKHI-113 was preceded by sequences of signal peptides from RuBisCO small subunit or from calreticulin for specific targeting of recombinant proteins into chloroplasts or endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. These recombinant DNA constructs were used for stable transformation of potato plants of local cultivar “Tamasha”.
The transgenesis was confirmed by PCR analysis of gDNA extracted from the kanamycin-resistant plants. Subsequent RT-PCR and western blot analyses showed expression of the target transgene at transcriptional and translational levels.
Keywords: SPPV; A27L; vaccine; Translation Enhancers of Plant Viruses

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