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Special Issue "Bioactivity and Toxicity in Marine Cyanobacteria"

A special issue of Toxins (ISSN 2072-6651). This special issue belongs to the section "Marine and Freshwater Toxins".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Vítor Vasconcelos

CIIMAR – Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, Matosinhos, Portugal and Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Portugal
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +351 223401814
Fax: +351 223380609
Interests: blue-biotechnology; emerging marine toxins; bioassay-guided approach; cyanobacteria bioactive compounds
Guest Editor
Dr. Pedro Leão

Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research (CIIMAR), Terminal de Cruzeiros do Porto de Leixões, Av. General Norton de Matos, s/n, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
E-Mail
Interests: chemical ecology; secondary metabolites; biosynthesis; cyanobacteria; structural elucidation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Marine cyanobacteria produce a wide array of secondary metabolites with biological activity, including toxins. In comparison with freshwater cyanobacteria, not much is known about the diversity of toxins in marine species, although the range of environmental conditions in marine systems contribute to the production of a high diversity of compounds. The isolation of new cyanobacteria marine strains will surely continue to reveal novel bioactive compounds. Moreover, culture-independent approaches to uncovering new chemical diversity are increasingly being adopted for cyanobacteria. Alongside the flow of new molecules with strong bioactivities lies the challenge for the coming years of translating this potential into pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, or antifouling products.

Prof. Dr. Vítor Vasconcelos
Dr. Pedro Leão
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxins is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs) for well prepared manuscripts submitted before 1 July 2013. The APC for manuscripts submitted from 1 July 2013 onwards are 1000 CHF per accepted paper.

Keywords

  • marine cyanobacteria
  • toxins
  • palytoxin
  • lyngbyatoxin
  • nodularin
  • microcystins
  • bmaa
  • secondary metabolites
  • antimicrobials
  • antitumor
  • anticancer
  • antifouling
  • antimalarial
  • genome mining

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Morphologic, Phylogenetic and Chemical Characterization of a Brackish Colonial Picocyanobacterium (Coelosphaeriaceae) with Bioactive Properties
Toxins 2016, 8(4), 108; doi:10.3390/toxins8040108
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
PDF Full-text (1353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Despite their cosmopolitan distribution, knowledge on cyanobacteria in the family Coelosphaeriaceae is limited. In this study, a single species culture of a coelosphaeran cyanobacterium isolated from a brackish rock pool in the Baltic Sea was established. The strain was characterized by morphological features,
[...] Read more.
Despite their cosmopolitan distribution, knowledge on cyanobacteria in the family Coelosphaeriaceae is limited. In this study, a single species culture of a coelosphaeran cyanobacterium isolated from a brackish rock pool in the Baltic Sea was established. The strain was characterized by morphological features, partial 16S rRNA sequence and nonribosomal oligopeptide profile. The bioactivity of fractionated extracts against several serine proteases, as well as protein-serine/threonine phosphatases was studied. Phylogenetic analyses of the strain suggested a close relationship with Snowella litoralis, but its morphology resembled Woronichinia compacta. The controversial morphologic and phylogenetic results demonstrated remaining uncertainties regarding species division in this cyanobacteria family. Chemical analyses of the strain indicated production of nonribosomal oligopeptides. In fractionated extracts, masses and ion fragmentation spectra of seven possible anabaenopeptins were identified. Additionally, fragmentation spectra of cyanopeptolin-like peptides were collected in several of the fractions. The nonribosomal oligopeptide profile adds another potential identification criterion in future inter- and intraspecies comparisons of coelosphaeran cyanobacteria. The fractionated extracts showed significant activity against carboxypeptidase A and trypsin. Inhibition of these important metabolic enzymes might have impacts at the ecosystem level in aquatic habitats with high cyanobacteria densities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity and Toxicity in Marine Cyanobacteria)
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Open AccessArticle Cylindrospermopsin Biodegradation Abilities of Aeromonas sp. Isolated from Rusałka Lake
Toxins 2016, 8(3), 55; doi:10.3390/toxins8030055
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 9 February 2016 / Accepted: 9 February 2016 / Published: 25 February 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in freshwater reservoirs is a common phenomenon. However, the biodegradation of this toxin in environmental samples has been observed only occasionally. In this work the biodegradation ability of cylindrospermopsin was investigated based on isolates from
[...] Read more.
The occurrence of the cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in freshwater reservoirs is a common phenomenon. However, the biodegradation of this toxin in environmental samples has been observed only occasionally. In this work the biodegradation ability of cylindrospermopsin was investigated based on isolates from lakes with previous cyanotoxin history. Bacterial strains were identified based on the 16S rDNA and rpoD gene comparison. CYN biodegradation was monitored using the HPLC method. The R6 strain identified as Aeromonas sp. was documented as being capable of CYN removal. This biodegradation was dependent on the pH and temperature. Additionally, the stimulation of the growth of the R6 strain in the presence of CYN was indicated. Our discovery supports the hypothesis that (in analogy to the well-known phenomenon of microcystin biodegradation) in lakes dominated by potential CYN-producing cyanobacteria, the processes of microbial utilization of this toxin may occur. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity and Toxicity in Marine Cyanobacteria)
Open AccessArticle MC-LR Exposure Leads to Subfertility of Female Mice and Induces Oxidative Stress in Granulosa Cells
Toxins 2015, 7(12), 5212-5223; doi:10.3390/toxins7124872
Received: 28 August 2015 / Revised: 17 November 2015 / Accepted: 23 November 2015 / Published: 2 December 2015
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (2410 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Health risk of human exposure to microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) has aroused more and more attention over the past few decades. In the present study, MC-LR was orally administered to female mice at 0, 1, 10 and 40 μg/L for three and six months.
[...] Read more.
Health risk of human exposure to microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) has aroused more and more attention over the past few decades. In the present study, MC-LR was orally administered to female mice at 0, 1, 10 and 40 μg/L for three and six months. We found that chronic exposure to MC-LR at environmental levels could stimulate follicle atresia and lead to decreased developmental follicles, accompanied by a reduction of gonadosomatic index (GSI). In line with the irregular gonadal hormone level and estrus cycles, subfertility of female mice was also confirmed by analyzing numbers of litters and pups. The in vitro study suggested that granulosa cells could uptake MC-LR and should be the target of the toxicant. Oxidative stress in granulose cells induced by MC-LR promoted follicle atresia and eventually leads to female subfertility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity and Toxicity in Marine Cyanobacteria)
Open AccessArticle Nodularia spumigena Peptides—Accumulation and Effect on Aquatic Invertebrates
Toxins 2015, 7(11), 4404-4420; doi:10.3390/toxins7114404
Received: 8 October 2015 / Revised: 21 October 2015 / Accepted: 23 October 2015 / Published: 30 October 2015
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (812 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD). In the current work, the accumulation of other N. spumigena metabolites in blue mussels and crustaceans, and their effect
[...] Read more.
Thus far, the negative effects of Nodularia spumigena blooms on aquatic organisms have been mainly attributed to the production of the hepatotoxic nodularin (NOD). In the current work, the accumulation of other N. spumigena metabolites in blue mussels and crustaceans, and their effect on Thamnocephalus platyurus and Artemia franciscana, were examined. The liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses provided evidence that both blue mussels collected after a cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea and the crustaceans exposed under laboratory conditions to N. spumigena extract accumulated the cyclic anabaenopeptins (APs). In the crustaceans, the linear peptides, spumigins (SPUs) and aeruginosins (AERs), were additionally detected. Exposure of T. platyurus and A. franciscana to N. spumigena extract confirmed the negative effect of nodularin on the organisms. However, high numbers of dead crustaceans were also recorded in the nodularin-free fraction, which contained protease inhibitors classified to spumigins and aeruginosins. These findings indicate that cyanobacterial toxicity to aquatic organisms is a complex phenomenon and the induced effects can be attributed to diverse metabolites, not only to the known hepatotoxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity and Toxicity in Marine Cyanobacteria)
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Open AccessArticle Acetylcholinesterase in Biofouling Species: Characterization and Mode of Action of Cyanobacteria-Derived Antifouling Agents
Toxins 2015, 7(8), 2739-2756; doi:10.3390/toxins7082739
Received: 3 June 2015 / Revised: 5 July 2015 / Accepted: 20 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Effective and ecofriendly antifouling (AF) compounds have been arising from naturally produced chemicals. The objective of this study is to use cyanobacteria-derived agents to investigate the role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as an effect and/or mode of action of promising AF compounds, since
[...] Read more.
Effective and ecofriendly antifouling (AF) compounds have been arising from naturally produced chemicals. The objective of this study is to use cyanobacteria-derived agents to investigate the role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as an effect and/or mode of action of promising AF compounds, since AChE inhibitors were found to inhibit invertebrate larval settlement. To pursue this objective, in vitro quantification of AChE activity under the effect of several cyanobacterial strain extracts as potential AF agents was performed along with in vivo AF (anti-settlement) screening tests. Pre-characterization of different cholinesterases (ChEs) forms present in selected tissues of important biofouling species was performed to confirm the predominance of AChE, and an in vitro AF test using pure AChE activity was developed. Eighteen cyanobacteria strains were tested as source of potential AF and AChE inhibitor agents. Results showed effectiveness in selecting promising eco-friendly AF agents, allowing the understanding of the AF biochemical mode of action induced by different compounds. This study also highlights the potential of cyanobacteria as source of AF agents towards invertebrate macrofouling species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity and Toxicity in Marine Cyanobacteria)
Open AccessArticle Glutathione Transferases Responses Induced by Microcystin-LR in the Gills and Hepatopancreas of the Clam Venerupis philippinarum
Toxins 2015, 7(6), 2096-2120; doi:10.3390/toxins7062096
Received: 6 May 2015 / Accepted: 30 May 2015 / Published: 9 June 2015
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1161 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A multi-method approach was employed to compare the responses of Glutatione Transferases (GSTs) in the gills and hepatopancreas of Venerupis philippinarum to microcystins (MCs) toxicity. In this way, using the cytosolic fraction, the enzymatic activity of GSTs, superoxide dismutase (SOD), serine/threonine protein phosphatases
[...] Read more.
A multi-method approach was employed to compare the responses of Glutatione Transferases (GSTs) in the gills and hepatopancreas of Venerupis philippinarum to microcystins (MCs) toxicity. In this way, using the cytosolic fraction, the enzymatic activity of GSTs, superoxide dismutase (SOD), serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PPP2) along with the gene expression levels of four GST isoforms (pi, mu, sigma1, sigma2) were investigated in both organs of the clams exposed for 24 h to 10, 50 and 100 μg L1 of MC-LR. Cytosolic GSTs (cGSTs) from both organs of the high dose exposed clams were purified by glutathione-agarose affinity chromatography, characterized kinetically and the changes in the expression of cGSTs of the gills identified using a proteomic approach. MC-LR caused an increase in GST enzyme activity, involved in conjugation reactions, in both gills and hepatopancreas (100 μg L1 exposure). SOD activity, an indicator of oxidative stress, showed significantly elevated levels in the hepatopancreas only (50 and 100 μg L1 exposure). No significant changes were found in PPP2 activity, the main target of MCs, for both organs. Transcription responses revealed an up-regulation of sigma2 in the hepatopancreas at the high dose, but no significant changes were detected in the gills. Kinetic analysis evidenced differences between gills of exposed and non-exposed extracts. Using proteomics, qualitative and quantitative differences were found between the basal and inducible cGSTs. Overall, results suggest a distinct role of GST system in counteracting MCs toxicity between the gills and the hepatopancreas of V. philippinarum, revealing different roles between GST isoforms within and among both organs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity and Toxicity in Marine Cyanobacteria)

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