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Toxins 2016, 8(4), 108; doi:10.3390/toxins8040108

Morphologic, Phylogenetic and Chemical Characterization of a Brackish Colonial Picocyanobacterium (Coelosphaeriaceae) with Bioactive Properties

1
Biochemistry, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Åbo Akademi University, Artillerigatan 6A, Åbo 20520, Finland
2
Department of Marine Biotechnology, Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk, Al. Marszałka Piłsudskiego 46, Gdynia 81-378, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Vítor Vasconcelos, Pedro Leão and John P. Berry
Received: 20 January 2016 / Revised: 21 March 2016 / Accepted: 31 March 2016 / Published: 12 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactivity and Toxicity in Marine Cyanobacteria)
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Abstract

Despite their cosmopolitan distribution, knowledge on cyanobacteria in the family Coelosphaeriaceae is limited. In this study, a single species culture of a coelosphaeran cyanobacterium isolated from a brackish rock pool in the Baltic Sea was established. The strain was characterized by morphological features, partial 16S rRNA sequence and nonribosomal oligopeptide profile. The bioactivity of fractionated extracts against several serine proteases, as well as protein-serine/threonine phosphatases was studied. Phylogenetic analyses of the strain suggested a close relationship with Snowella litoralis, but its morphology resembled Woronichinia compacta. The controversial morphologic and phylogenetic results demonstrated remaining uncertainties regarding species division in this cyanobacteria family. Chemical analyses of the strain indicated production of nonribosomal oligopeptides. In fractionated extracts, masses and ion fragmentation spectra of seven possible anabaenopeptins were identified. Additionally, fragmentation spectra of cyanopeptolin-like peptides were collected in several of the fractions. The nonribosomal oligopeptide profile adds another potential identification criterion in future inter- and intraspecies comparisons of coelosphaeran cyanobacteria. The fractionated extracts showed significant activity against carboxypeptidase A and trypsin. Inhibition of these important metabolic enzymes might have impacts at the ecosystem level in aquatic habitats with high cyanobacteria densities. View Full-Text
Keywords: anabaenopeptins; cyanopeptolins; enzyme inhibition; polyphasic approach; Snowella; Woronichinia anabaenopeptins; cyanopeptolins; enzyme inhibition; polyphasic approach; Snowella; Woronichinia
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Häggqvist, K.; Toruńska-Sitarz, A.; Błaszczyk, A.; Mazur-Marzec, H.; Meriluoto, J. Morphologic, Phylogenetic and Chemical Characterization of a Brackish Colonial Picocyanobacterium (Coelosphaeriaceae) with Bioactive Properties. Toxins 2016, 8, 108.

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