Special Issue "Nanoparticles Toxicity and Impacts on Biodiversity"

A special issue of Toxics (ISSN 2305-6304).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 January 2019

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Willie Peijnenburg

Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands
E-Mail
Phone: +31302743129
Interests: fate and effect assessment of nanomaterials; development and predictive models for estimation of fate and effect properties of chemical substances; implementation of bioavailability risk assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Engineering materials at the nanoscale not only bring the promise of radical technological development but also safety challenges. The effects of nanoparticles on humans and the environment are complex and vary in dependence of the intrinsic properties of the particles, the extrinsic properties of the environment, and the properties of the individual biota and ecological communities exposed. It is the aim of this Special Issue to present the current scientific progress within the field of nanoparticle toxicity assessment and the assessment of impacts of nanoparticles on biodiversity in the widest senses. Consequently, no restrictions are in place regarding, for instance, the types of nanoparticles investigated, endpoints of toxicity assessment, environmental compartment, and timescales of assessment (acute versus chronic toxicity assessment). As nanoparticle toxicity is, to a large extent, impacted by particle fate, considerations of fate assessments of particles are also of key interest.

Finally, it is to be noted that modeling of nanoparticle fate and effects is an issue that will be touched on. In this sense, both the development of models capable of predicting nanoparticle fate and toxic effects are of relevance, as well as approaches towards safer-by-design, categorization, grouping and read across of nanoparticles, as well as models allowing for extrapolation across biological species and ecological scales. After all, not all organisms and all ecosystems can be tested for harmful effects from nanomaterials and extrapolation across species, particles and types of ecosystems is therefore essential. To improve ecological realism, approaches towards assessing actual impacts on biodiversity in ‘real’ ecosystems will also be considered.

Prof. Dr. Willie Peijnenburg
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Toxics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Nanoparticles
  • Nanomaterials
  • Environment
  • Toxicity
  • Fate
  • Biodiversity
  • Ecosystems
  • Modelling
  • Categorisation
  • Risk assessment

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles-Facilitated Intracellular Delivery of siRNA(s) Targeting Calcium Ion Channels Efficiently Kills Breast Cancer Cells
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 20 June 2018 / Published: 26 June 2018
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Abstract
Specific gene knockdown facilitated by short interfering RNA (siRNA) is a potential approach for suppressing the expression of ion channels and transporter proteins to kill breast cancer cells. The overexpression of calcium ion channels and transporter genes is seen in the MCF-7 breast
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Specific gene knockdown facilitated by short interfering RNA (siRNA) is a potential approach for suppressing the expression of ion channels and transporter proteins to kill breast cancer cells. The overexpression of calcium ion channels and transporter genes is seen in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Since naked siRNA is anionic and prone to nuclease-mediated degradation, it has limited permeability across the cationic cell membrane and short systemic half-life, respectively. Carbonate apatite (CA) nanoparticles were formulated, characterized, loaded with a series of siRNAs, and delivered into MCF-7 and 4T1 breast cancer cells to selectively knockdown the respective calcium and magnesium ion channels and transporters. Individual knockdown of TRPC6, TRPM7, TRPM8, SLC41A1, SLC41A2, ORAI1, ORAI3, and ATP2C1 genes showed significant reduction (p < 0.001) in cell viability depending on the cancer cell type. From a variety of combinations of siRNAs, the combination of TRPC6, TRPM8, SLC41A2, and MAGT1 siRNAs delivered via CA produced the greatest cell viability reduction, resulting in a cytotoxicity effect of 57.06 ± 3.72% (p < 0.05) and 59.83 ± 2.309% (p = 0.09) in 4T1 and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. Some of the combinations were shown to suppress the Akt pathway in Western Blot analysis when compared to the controls. Therefore, CA-siRNA-facilitated gene knockdown in vitro holds a high prospect for deregulating cell proliferation and survival pathways through the modulation of Ca2+ signaling in breast cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles Toxicity and Impacts on Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Induced Oxidative DNA Damage, Inflammation and Apoptosis in Rat’s Brain after Oral Exposure
Received: 23 April 2018 / Revised: 11 May 2018 / Accepted: 19 May 2018 / Published: 26 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3637 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Growing evidences demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) could reach the brain after oral ingestion; however, the “neurotoxicity of” ZnONPs after oral exposure has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to explore the “neurotoxicity of” ZnONPs (<100 nm) after oral exposure to
[...] Read more.
Growing evidences demonstrated that zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) could reach the brain after oral ingestion; however, the “neurotoxicity of” ZnONPs after oral exposure has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to explore the “neurotoxicity of” ZnONPs (<100 nm) after oral exposure to two doses; 40 and 100 mg/kg for 24 h and 7 days. The exposure to 40 and 100 mg/kg of ZnONPs for 24 h did not elicit “neurotoxicity” compared to normal control. However, the daily exposure to both doses for 7 days caused oxidative stress in brain tissue as detected by the elevation of the levels of malondialdehyde, the main product of lipid peroxidation and nitrite as an index of nitric oxide with concomitant decline in the concentrations of antioxidants. In addition, both doses resulted in DNA fragmentation which was confirmed by increased percentage of tailed DNA, DNA tail intensity and length and tail moment particularly with the dose 100 mg/kg. Moreover, both doses led to the elevation of the inflammatory cytokines along with increased apoptotic markers including caspase-3 and Fas. Heat shock protein-70 levels were also elevated possibly as a compensatory mechanism to counteract the ZnONPs-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. The present results indicate the “neurotoxicity of” ZnONPs after recurrent oral exposure via oxidative stress, genotoxicity, inflammatory response and apoptosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles Toxicity and Impacts on Biodiversity)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic, Apoptotic and Genotoxic Effects of Lipid-Based and Polymeric Nano Micelles, an In Vitro Evaluation
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 26 December 2017 / Accepted: 29 December 2017 / Published: 30 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4749 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Self-assembly systems (SAS) mainly consist of micelles, and liposomes are the classes of Nano Drug Delivery Systems with superior properties compared to traditional therapeutics in targeting cancer tumors. All commercially available nano-formulations of chemotherapeutics currently consist of SAS. According to our knowledge, a
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Self-assembly systems (SAS) mainly consist of micelles, and liposomes are the classes of Nano Drug Delivery Systems with superior properties compared to traditional therapeutics in targeting cancer tumors. All commercially available nano-formulations of chemotherapeutics currently consist of SAS. According to our knowledge, a specific toxicity comparison based on material differences has not yet been performed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the toxicity of two SAS consisting of Sterically Stabilized Micelles (SSM) made of a lipid-based amphiphilic distearoyl-sn-glycero-phosphatidylethanolamine-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-2000 and a polymeric micelle (PM) consisting of Y-shape amphiphilic block copolymer, synthesized using poly ε-caprolactone and PEG. The mechanism of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of micelles on L-929 healthy mouse fibroblast cells was assessed using Sulforhodamine-B, WST-1, Acridine Orange/Ethidium Bromide and alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assays. Results showed that SSM in conc. of 40 mg/mL shows very low cytotoxicity at the end of 24, 48 and 72 h. The DNA damage caused by SSM was much lower than PM while the latter one showed significant toxicity by causing apoptosis with the ED50 value of 3 mg/mL. While the DNA damage caused by SSM was ignorable, some DNA chain breaks were detected on cells treated with PM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles Toxicity and Impacts on Biodiversity)
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