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Sensors 2013, 13(7), 8595-8611; doi:10.3390/s130708595
Article

Direct Electrochemistry of Hemoglobin Immobilized on a Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Gold Nanoparticles Nanocomplex-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode

1,* , 1
,
1
,
2,* , 2
 and
3
1 School of Life Sciences, Henan University, JinMing Road, Kaifeng 475000, China 2 Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Tehran, Enquelab Avenue, P.O. Box 13145-1384, Tehran, Iran 3 Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin, 600 Highland Avenue, K6/456 CSC, Madison, WI 53792-4673, USA
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 May 2013 / Revised: 17 June 2013 / Accepted: 30 June 2013 / Published: 5 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotube and Nanowire Sensors)
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Abstract

Direct electron transfer of hemoglobin (Hb) was realized by immobilizing Hb on a carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (FMWCNTs) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) nanocomplex-modified glassy carbon electrode. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrometry (UV-Vis), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) methods were utilized for additional characterization of the AuNPs and FMWCNTs. The cyclic voltammogram of the modified electrode has a pair of well-defined quasi-reversible redox peaks with a formal potential of −0.270 ± 0.002 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) at a scan rate of 0.05 V/s. The heterogeneous electron transfer constant (ks) was evaluated to be 4.0 ± 0.2 s−1. The average surface concentration of electro-active Hb on the surface of the modified glassy carbon electrode was calculated to be 6.8 ± 0.3 × 10−10 mol cm−2. The cathodic peak current of the modified electrode increased linearly with increasing concentration of hydrogen peroxide (from 0.05 nM to 1 nM) with a detection limit of 0.05 ± 0.01 nM. The apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Kmapp) was calculated to be 0.85 ± 0.1 nM. Thus, the modified electrode could be applied as a third generation biosensor with high sensitivity, long-term stability and low detection limit.
Keywords: hemoglobin; direct electrochemistry; functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes; gold nanoparticles; nanocomplex hemoglobin; direct electrochemistry; functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes; gold nanoparticles; nanocomplex
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Hong, J.; Zhao, Y.-X.; Xiao, B.-L.; Moosavi-Movahedi, A.A.; Ghourchian, H.; Sheibani, N. Direct Electrochemistry of Hemoglobin Immobilized on a Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Gold Nanoparticles Nanocomplex-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode. Sensors 2013, 13, 8595-8611.

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