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Special Issue "Sensors and Biosensors Using Label Free Chemistries"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Séamus P.J. Higson (Website)

Cranfield Health, Cranfield University, Cranfield, MK43 0AL, UK
Interests: electrochemical biosensors; biosensors for healthcare; biosensors for environmental monitoring; DNA sensors; enzymatic sensors; affinity based biosensors; antibody based biosensors; micro-electrodes and micro-electrode arrays

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues

Sensors, biosensors and the wider field of biological test kits/assays has continued to be an area of active and indeed rapidly expanding research during the past two decades with many new commercial tests having been successfully brought to the market. Many of these have exploited the specificity afforded by the use of biological chemistries and while these have allowed full commercialisation of devices for routine use, the coupling of this chemistry to a transducer (or other detection means) to allow readings to be taken, has often required the use of some form of chemical or radio-label. One of most obvious examples of this can be seen in the widespread use of Enzyme-Linked-Immuno-Sorbent-Assays or ELISA based chemistries. The development and manufacture of these tests often involves the use of relatively complicated covalent (and other) coupling chemistries and the tests do not always lend themselves to quantitative analyses but rather have found greatest application in situations where qualitative, positive or negative answers suffice (e.g., to detect the presence or absence of infection).

One of the most recent research trends has been to try to simplify the chemistries within biological assays and biosensors often by using chemistries that do not require the use of a label. These approaches offer promise for greater ease of use and in some cases may facilitate quantitative determinations.

This special edition will consider some of the promising research along with those approaches that have already become accepted. Since this is a rapidly developing area that is attracting considerable interest within the research community and beyond, consideration is also being given to possible future trends and potential application areas ranging from medicine through to environmental monitoring and home-land security.

Prof. Dr. Séamus P.J. Higson
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • labeless
  • labeless sensors
  • labeless chemistries for sensors
  • affinity sensors
  • labeless antibody
  • labeless nucleic acid
  • labeless DNA
  • labeless RNA
  • aptamers
  • laleess apatamers
  • synthetic receptors

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Interface Design for CMOS-Integrated Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Biosensors
Sensors 2012, 12(11), 14467-14488; doi:10.3390/s121114467
Received: 16 August 2012 / Revised: 4 September 2012 / Accepted: 18 October 2012 / Published: 29 October 2012
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3406 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful electrochemical technique to detect biomolecules. EIS has the potential of carrying out label-free and real-time detection, and in addition, can be easily implemented using electronic integrated circuits (ICs) that are built through standard semiconductor fabrication [...] Read more.
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful electrochemical technique to detect biomolecules. EIS has the potential of carrying out label-free and real-time detection, and in addition, can be easily implemented using electronic integrated circuits (ICs) that are built through standard semiconductor fabrication processes. This paper focuses on the various design and optimization aspects of EIS ICs, particularly the bio-to-semiconductor interface design. We discuss, in detail, considerations such as the choice of the electrode surface in view of IC manufacturing, surface linkers, and development of optimal bio-molecular detection protocols. We also report experimental results, using both macro- and micro-electrodes to demonstrate the design trade-offs and ultimately validate our optimization procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Biosensors Using Label Free Chemistries)
Open AccessArticle A Reusable Impedimetric Aptasensor for Detection of Thrombin Employing a Graphite-Epoxy Composite Electrode
Sensors 2012, 12(3), 3037-3048; doi:10.3390/s120303037
Received: 13 January 2012 / Revised: 15 February 2012 / Accepted: 23 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (412 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Here, we report the application of a label-free electrochemical aptasensor based on a graphite-epoxy composite electrode for the detection of thrombin; in this work, aptamers were immobilized onto the electrodes surface using wet physical adsorption. The detection principle is based on the [...] Read more.
Here, we report the application of a label-free electrochemical aptasensor based on a graphite-epoxy composite electrode for the detection of thrombin; in this work, aptamers were immobilized onto the electrodes surface using wet physical adsorption. The detection principle is based on the changes of the interfacial properties of the electrode; these were probed in the presence of the reversible redox couple [Fe(CN)6]3−/[Fe(CN)6]4− using impedance measurements. The electrode surface was partially blocked due to formation of aptamer-thrombin complex, resulting in an increase of the interfacial electron-transfer resistance detected by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). The aptasensor showed a linear response for thrombin in the range of 7.5 pM to 75 pM and a detection limit of 4.5 pM. The aptasensor was regenerated by breaking the complex formed between the aptamer and thrombin using 2.0 M NaCl solution at 42 °C, showing its operation for different cycles. The interference response caused by main proteins in serum has been characterized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Biosensors Using Label Free Chemistries)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Application of Optical Biosensors in Small-Molecule Screening Activities
Sensors 2012, 12(4), 4311-4323; doi:10.3390/s120404311
Received: 22 February 2012 / Revised: 20 March 2012 / Accepted: 23 March 2012 / Published: 28 March 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The last two decades have seen remarkable progress and improvements in optical biosensor systems such that those are currently seen as an important and value-adding component of modern drug screening activities. In particular the introduction of microplate-based biosensor systems holds the promise [...] Read more.
The last two decades have seen remarkable progress and improvements in optical biosensor systems such that those are currently seen as an important and value-adding component of modern drug screening activities. In particular the introduction of microplate-based biosensor systems holds the promise to match the required throughput without compromising on data quality thus representing a sought-after complement to traditional fluidic systems. This article aims to highlight the application of the two most prominent optical biosensor technologies, namely surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and optical waveguide grating (OWG), in small-molecule screening and will present, review and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different assay formats on these platforms. A particular focus will be on the specific advantages of the inhibition in solution assay (ISA) format in contrast to traditional direct binding assays (DBA). Furthermore we will discuss different application areas for both fluidic as well as plate-based biosensor systems by considering the individual strength of the platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sensors and Biosensors Using Label Free Chemistries)
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