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Interface Design for CMOS-Integrated Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Biosensors
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
Robert Bosch Research and Technology Center, Palo Alto, CA 94306, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 August 2012; in revised form: 4 September 2012 / Accepted: 18 October 2012 / Published: 29 October 2012
Abstract: Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is a powerful electrochemical technique to detect biomolecules. EIS has the potential of carrying out label-free and real-time detection, and in addition, can be easily implemented using electronic integrated circuits (ICs) that are built through standard semiconductor fabrication processes. This paper focuses on the various design and optimization aspects of EIS ICs, particularly the bio-to-semiconductor interface design. We discuss, in detail, considerations such as the choice of the electrode surface in view of IC manufacturing, surface linkers, and development of optimal bio-molecular detection protocols. We also report experimental results, using both macro- and micro-electrodes to demonstrate the design trade-offs and ultimately validate our optimization procedures.
Keywords: Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy; integrated biosensors; CMOS integrated circuit; label-free; real-time; microarrays
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Manickam, A.; Johnson, C.A.; Kavusi, S.; Hassibi, A. Interface Design for CMOS-Integrated Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Biosensors. Sensors 2012, 12, 14467-14488.
Manickam A, Johnson CA, Kavusi S, Hassibi A. Interface Design for CMOS-Integrated Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Biosensors. Sensors. 2012; 12(11):14467-14488.
Manickam, Arun; Johnson, Christopher Andrew; Kavusi, Sam; Hassibi, Arjang. 2012. "Interface Design for CMOS-Integrated Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Biosensors." Sensors 12, no. 11: 14467-14488.