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Special Issue "Electrochemical Sensors Based on Conductive Polymers"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2008)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Yoon-Bo Shim

Department of Chemistry and Institute of BioPhysio Sensor Technology, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Korea
E-Mail
Fax: +82 51 514 2122
Interests: chemical and bio sensors; conductive polymers; spectroelectrochemistry; electron transfer process; bioelectronics; battery system; analysis of trace pollutants

Special Issue Information

This special issue is intended to focus on the recent advances that are being made in all areas of conducting polymer based electrochemical sensors. It is devised to survey the application of various kinds of conducting polymer, such as π-conjugated conducting polymer, inorganic conducting polymer, and conducting polymer composites as electrode modifier, as structural elements, as transducer, and as sensor component in electrochemical sensors. Special emphasis will be placed on the nano-structured conducting polymer based electrochemical biosensors, immunosensors, DNA sensors, and modified electrodes for electroanalysis. It features all aspects of amperometric, potentiometric, conductometric, coulometric, impedimetric, and voltammetric sensors and biosensors. New modification/combination of electrochemical detection principle, integrated and hyphenated with sampling, fluidic handling, separation with conducting polymer based sensors are also included.
Full research papers with new results (experimental or theoretical) in this field or a comprehensive review of the state- of-art of cantilever sensors are encouraged for submission. There are no length restrictions for the manuscripts.

Keywords

  • Conducting polymers based electrochemical sensors design and application.
  • Potentiometric sensors for oxygen, ion, gas, and biomolecules.
  • Amperometric and voltammetric sensors for oxygen, ion, gas, and biomolecules.
  • Conductometric and impedimetric sensors and biosensors.
  • Thin film transistors and insulated gate field effect transistors.
  • New theoretical concepts for ion-selective membrane electrodes.
  • The assay of DNA and proteins using conducting polymer based electrochemical biosensors.
  • Conducting polymer based electrochemical sensor arrays: the utilization of ultramicroelectrodes for in vivo and in vitro analyses.
  • Flow systems with conducting polymer based electrochemical sensors as detectors.
  • Conducting polymer nano-particle based electrochemical sensors.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Optimalization of Poly(neutral red) Coated-wire Electrode for Determination of Citrate in Soft Drinks
Sensors 2008, 8(2), 594-606; doi:10.3390/s8020594
Received: 9 October 2007 / Accepted: 28 January 2008 / Published: 4 February 2008
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (315 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This report presents an optimization of potentiometric measurements withcitrate-selective electropolymerized poly(neutral red) electrodes. The optimal backgroundelectrolyte for these measurements is a TRIS buffer with nitrate at pH 8.5. The electrodesdescribed here exhibit stable and reproducible near-Nernstian response to citrates with alow detection limit
[...] Read more.
This report presents an optimization of potentiometric measurements withcitrate-selective electropolymerized poly(neutral red) electrodes. The optimal backgroundelectrolyte for these measurements is a TRIS buffer with nitrate at pH 8.5. The electrodesdescribed here exhibit stable and reproducible near-Nernstian response to citrates with alow detection limit of 6 × 10-6 M. Electrodes polymerized from sulfuric acid andacetonitrile are compared in detail. Simple and sensitive method for quantification ofcitrate in real-life samples by potentiometry with poly(neutral red) electrodes arepresented. Data from potentiometric measurements of citrate are compared with capillaryelectrophoresis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors Based on Conductive Polymers)
Open AccessArticle PVC Membrane Sensors for Potentiometric Determination of Acebutolol
Sensors 2007, 7(12), 3272-3286; doi:10.3390/s7123272
Received: 11 July 2007 / Accepted: 8 October 2007 / Published: 13 December 2007
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The construction and general performance characteristics of two novelpotentiometric membrane sensors responsive to the acebutolol are described. Thesensors are based on the use of ion-association complexes of acebutolol (AC) withtetraphenylborate(TPB) (I) and phosphomolybdate(PM) (II) as exchange sites in a PVCmatrix. The sensors show
[...] Read more.
The construction and general performance characteristics of two novelpotentiometric membrane sensors responsive to the acebutolol are described. Thesensors are based on the use of ion-association complexes of acebutolol (AC) withtetraphenylborate(TPB) (I) and phosphomolybdate(PM) (II) as exchange sites in a PVCmatrix. The sensors show a fast, stable and near- Nernstian for the mono charge cationof AC over the concentration range 1×10-3 - ~10-6 M at 25 °C over the pH range 2.0 -6.0 with cationic slope of 51.5 ± 0.5 and 53.0 ± 0.5 per concentration decade for AC-Iand AC-II sensors respectively. The lower detection limit is 6×10-6 M and 4×0-6 M withthe response time 20-30 s in the same order of both sensors. Selectivity coefficients ofAC related to a number of interfering cation and some organic compounds wereinvestigated. There are negligible interferences are caused by most of the investigatedspecies. The direct determination of 3 - 370 μg/ml of AC shows an average recovery of 99.4 and 99.5% and a mean relative standard deviation of 1 . 5 % at 100.0 μg/ml forsensor I and II respectively. The results obtained by determination of AC in tablets usingthe proposed sensors which comparable favorably with those obtained by the Britishpharmacopoeia method. In the present investigation the electrodes have been utilized asend point indicator for some precipitation titration reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors Based on Conductive Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Detection of Brominated By-Products Using a Sensor Array Based on Nanostructured Thin Films of Conducting Polymers
Sensors 2007, 7(12), 3258-3271; doi:10.3390/s7123258
Received: 20 September 2007 / Accepted: 19 November 2007 / Published: 12 December 2007
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1391 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The detection of the carcinogenic trihalomethanes (THM) in public water supplysystems using low-cost equipment has become an essential feature, since these compoundsmay be generated as by-products of water-treatment processes. Here we report on a sensorarray that extends the concept of an “electronic tongue”
[...] Read more.
The detection of the carcinogenic trihalomethanes (THM) in public water supplysystems using low-cost equipment has become an essential feature, since these compoundsmay be generated as by-products of water-treatment processes. Here we report on a sensorarray that extends the concept of an “electronic tongue” to detect small amounts ofbromoform, bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane, with detection limits aslow as 0.02 mg L-1. The sensor array was made up of 10 sensing units, in whichnanostructured films of conducting and natural polymers were deposited onto goldinterdigitated electrodes. The principle of detection was impedance spectroscopy, withmeasurements carried out in the range between 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Using data at 1 kHz, atwhich the electrical response varied considerably by changing the analyte, we demonstratedwith principal component analysis (PCA) that samples with the 3 brominatedtrihalomethanes can be distinguished from each other and for various concentrations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors Based on Conductive Polymers)
Open AccessArticle Potentiometric Responses of Ion-Selective Electrodes Doped with Diureidocalix[4]arene towards Un-dissociated Benzoic Acid
Sensors 2007, 7(8), 1655-1666; doi:10.3390/s7081655
Received: 1 July 2007 / Accepted: 26 August 2007 / Published: 27 August 2007
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Diureidocalix[4]arene have been applied as new ionophore in liquid membraneelectrode (ISE) sensitive towards un-dissociated benzoic acid. The electrode demonstratedresponse towards benzoic acid with the detection limit 2.0 x 10-4 M which is sufficient forthe determination of benzoic acid added to beverages as
[...] Read more.
Diureidocalix[4]arene have been applied as new ionophore in liquid membraneelectrode (ISE) sensitive towards un-dissociated benzoic acid. The electrode demonstratedresponse towards benzoic acid with the detection limit 2.0 x 10-4 M which is sufficient forthe determination of benzoic acid added to beverages as preservative in milimolarconcentration. The selectivity coefficients measured by the matched potential method(MPM) showed its good selectivity against common anions present in drink samples. Allmeasurements were made in presence of 1.0 x 10-2 M NaHSO4 pH 3.0 in order to reducethe influence of OH-. The applicability of diureidocalix[4]arene incorporated ISE has beenchecked by recovery test of benzoic acid in the presence of artificial drink matrix and bystandard addition method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors Based on Conductive Polymers)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview A Nonoxidative Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Self-Doped Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotube Composite for Sensitive and Selective Detection of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine: A Review
Sensors 2008, 8(12), 8423-8452; doi:10.3390/s8128423
Received: 29 July 2008 / Revised: 12 December 2008 / Accepted: 16 December 2008 / Published: 18 December 2008
Cited by 40 | PDF Full-text (1821 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Most of the current techniques for in vivo detection of dopamine exploit the ease of oxidation of this compound. The major problem during the detection is the presence of a high concentration of ascorbic acid that is oxidized at nearly the same potential
[...] Read more.
Most of the current techniques for in vivo detection of dopamine exploit the ease of oxidation of this compound. The major problem during the detection is the presence of a high concentration of ascorbic acid that is oxidized at nearly the same potential as dopamine on bare electrodes. Furthermore, the oxidation product of dopamine reacts with ascorbic acid present in samples and regenerates dopamine again, which severely limits the accuracy of the detection. Meanwhile, the product could also form a melanin-like insulating film on the electrode surface, which decreases the sensitivity of the electrode. Various surface modifications on the electrode, new materials for making the electrodes, and new electrochemical techniques have been exploited to solve these problems. Recently we developed a new electrochemical detection method that did not rely on direct oxidation of dopamine on electrodes, which may naturally solve these problems. This approach takes advantage of the high performance of our newly developed poly(anilineboronic acid)/carbon nanotube composite and the excellent permselectivity of the ion-exchange polymer Nafion. The high affinity binding of dopamine to the boronic acid groups of the polymer affects the electrochemical properties of the polyaniline backbone, which act as the basis for the transduction mechanism of this non-oxidative dopamine sensor. The unique reduction capability and high conductivity of single-stranded DNA functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes greatly improved the electrochemical activity of the polymer in a physiologically-relevant buffer, and the large surface area of the carbon nanotubes increased the density of the boronic acid receptors. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor show excellent promise toward molecular diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we will focus on the discussion of this novel detection approach, the new interferences in this detection approach, and how to eliminate these interferences toward in vivo and in vitro detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors Based on Conductive Polymers)
Open AccessReview Developments in the Field of Conducting and Non-conducting Polymer Based Potentiometric Membrane Sensors for Ions Over the Past Decade
Sensors 2008, 8(4), 2331-2412; doi:10.3390/s8042331
Received: 1 February 2008 / Accepted: 2 April 2008 / Published: 3 April 2008
Cited by 104 | PDF Full-text (548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Many research studies have been conducted on the use of conjugated polymers in the construction of chemical sensors including potentiometric, conductometric and amperometric sensors or biosensors over the last decade. The induction of conductivity on conjugated polymers by treating them with suitable oxidizing
[...] Read more.
Many research studies have been conducted on the use of conjugated polymers in the construction of chemical sensors including potentiometric, conductometric and amperometric sensors or biosensors over the last decade. The induction of conductivity on conjugated polymers by treating them with suitable oxidizing agents won Heeger, MacDiarmid and Shirakawa the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. Common conjugated polymers are poly(acetylene)s, poly(pyrrole)s, poly(thiophene)s, poly(terthiophene)s, poly(aniline)s, poly(fluorine)s, poly(3-alkylthiophene)s, polytetrathiafulvalenes, polynapthalenes, poly(p-phenylene sulfide), poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), polyparaphenylene, polyazulene, polyparaphenylene sulfide, polycarbazole and polydiaminonaphthalene. More than 60 sensors for inorganic cations and anions with different characteristics based on conducting polymers have been reported. There have also been reports on the application of non-conducting polymers (nCPs), i.e. PVC, in the construction of potentiometric membrane sensors for determination of more than 60 inorganic cations and anions. However, the leakage of ionophores from the membranes based on these polymers leads to relatively lower life times. In this article, we try to give an overview of Solid-Contact ISE (SCISE), Single-Piece ISE (SPISE), Conducting Polymer (CP)-Based, and also non-conducting polymer PVC-based ISEs for various ions which their difference is in the way of the polymer used with selective membrane. In SCISEs and SPISEs, the plasticized PVC containing the ionophore and ionic additives govern the selectivity behavior of the electrode and the conducting polymer is responsible of ion-to-electron transducer. However, in CPISEs, the conducting polymer layer is doped with a suitable ionophore which enhances the ion selectivity of the CP while its redox response has to be suppressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors Based on Conductive Polymers)
Open AccessReview Electrochemical Sensors Based on Organic Conjugated Polymers
Sensors 2008, 8(1), 118-141; doi:10.3390/s8010118
Received: 29 October 2007 / Accepted: 4 January 2008 / Published: 9 January 2008
Cited by 151 | PDF Full-text (407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic conjugated polymers (conducting polymers) have emerged as potentialcandidates for electrochemical sensors. Due to their straightforward preparation methods,unique properties, and stability in air, conducting polymers have been applied to energystorage, electrochemical devices, memory devices, chemical sensors, and electrocatalysts.Conducting polymers are also known to
[...] Read more.
Organic conjugated polymers (conducting polymers) have emerged as potentialcandidates for electrochemical sensors. Due to their straightforward preparation methods,unique properties, and stability in air, conducting polymers have been applied to energystorage, electrochemical devices, memory devices, chemical sensors, and electrocatalysts.Conducting polymers are also known to be compatible with biological molecules in aneutral aqueous solution. Thus, these are extensively used in the fabrication of accurate,fast, and inexpensive devices, such as biosensors and chemical sensors in the medicaldiagnostic laboratories. Conducting polymer-based electrochemical sensors and biosensorsplay an important role in the improvement of public health and environment because rapiddetection, high sensitivity, small size, and specificity are achievable for environmentalmonitoring and clinical diagnostics. In this review, we summarized the recent advances inconducting polymer-based electrochemical sensors, which covers chemical sensors(potentiometric, voltammetric, amperometric) and biosensors (enzyme based biosensors,immunosensors, DNA sensors). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors Based on Conductive Polymers)

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