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Detection of Brominated By-Products Using a Sensor Array Based on Nanostructured Thin Films of Conducting Polymers
Embrapa Instrumentação Agropecuária, P.O. Box 741, 13560-970, São Carlos/SP, Brazil
Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, USP, SP, Brazil
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 September 2007; Accepted: 19 November 2007 / Published: 12 December 2007
Abstract: The detection of the carcinogenic trihalomethanes (THM) in public water supplysystems using low-cost equipment has become an essential feature, since these compoundsmay be generated as by-products of water-treatment processes. Here we report on a sensorarray that extends the concept of an “electronic tongue” to detect small amounts ofbromoform, bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane, with detection limits aslow as 0.02 mg L-1. The sensor array was made up of 10 sensing units, in whichnanostructured films of conducting and natural polymers were deposited onto goldinterdigitated electrodes. The principle of detection was impedance spectroscopy, withmeasurements carried out in the range between 1 Hz to 1 MHz. Using data at 1 kHz, atwhich the electrical response varied considerably by changing the analyte, we demonstratedwith principal component analysis (PCA) that samples with the 3 brominatedtrihalomethanes can be distinguished from each other and for various concentrations.
Keywords: trihalomethanes; brominated by-products; sensors; conducting polymers.
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MDPI and ACS Style
Carvalho, E.R.; Consolin Filho, N.; Venancio, E.C.; O., O.N., Jr.; Mattoso, L.H.C.; Martin-Neto, L. Detection of Brominated By-Products Using a Sensor Array Based on Nanostructured Thin Films of Conducting Polymers. Sensors 2007, 7, 3258-3271.
Carvalho ER, Consolin Filho N, Venancio EC, O. ON, Jr, Mattoso LHC, Martin-Neto L. Detection of Brominated By-Products Using a Sensor Array Based on Nanostructured Thin Films of Conducting Polymers. Sensors. 2007; 7(12):3258-3271.
Carvalho, Eduarda R.; Consolin Filho, Nelson; Venancio, Everaldo C.; O., Osvaldo N., Jr.; Mattoso, Luiz H.C.; Martin-Neto, Ladislau. 2007. "Detection of Brominated By-Products Using a Sensor Array Based on Nanostructured Thin Films of Conducting Polymers." Sensors 7, no. 12: 3258-3271.