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Sensors 2008, 8(12), 8423-8452; doi:10.3390/s8128423
Review

A Nonoxidative Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Self-Doped Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotube Composite for Sensitive and Selective Detection of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine: A Review

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Received: 29 July 2008; in revised form: 12 December 2008 / Accepted: 16 December 2008 / Published: 18 December 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electrochemical Sensors Based on Conductive Polymers)
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Abstract: Most of the current techniques for in vivo detection of dopamine exploit the ease of oxidation of this compound. The major problem during the detection is the presence of a high concentration of ascorbic acid that is oxidized at nearly the same potential as dopamine on bare electrodes. Furthermore, the oxidation product of dopamine reacts with ascorbic acid present in samples and regenerates dopamine again, which severely limits the accuracy of the detection. Meanwhile, the product could also form a melanin-like insulating film on the electrode surface, which decreases the sensitivity of the electrode. Various surface modifications on the electrode, new materials for making the electrodes, and new electrochemical techniques have been exploited to solve these problems. Recently we developed a new electrochemical detection method that did not rely on direct oxidation of dopamine on electrodes, which may naturally solve these problems. This approach takes advantage of the high performance of our newly developed poly(anilineboronic acid)/carbon nanotube composite and the excellent permselectivity of the ion-exchange polymer Nafion. The high affinity binding of dopamine to the boronic acid groups of the polymer affects the electrochemical properties of the polyaniline backbone, which act as the basis for the transduction mechanism of this non-oxidative dopamine sensor. The unique reduction capability and high conductivity of single-stranded DNA functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes greatly improved the electrochemical activity of the polymer in a physiologically-relevant buffer, and the large surface area of the carbon nanotubes increased the density of the boronic acid receptors. The high sensitivity and selectivity of the sensor show excellent promise toward molecular diagnosis of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we will focus on the discussion of this novel detection approach, the new interferences in this detection approach, and how to eliminate these interferences toward in vivo and in vitro detection of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Keywords: Boronic Acid; Dopamine Detection; Nonoxidative Sensor; Polyaniline; Carbon Nanotube; Parkinson’s disease Boronic Acid; Dopamine Detection; Nonoxidative Sensor; Polyaniline; Carbon Nanotube; Parkinson’s disease
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ali, S.R.; Parajuli, R.R.; Balogun, Y.; Ma, Y.; He, H. A Nonoxidative Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Self-Doped Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotube Composite for Sensitive and Selective Detection of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine: A Review. Sensors 2008, 8, 8423-8452.

AMA Style

Ali SR, Parajuli RR, Balogun Y, Ma Y, He H. A Nonoxidative Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Self-Doped Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotube Composite for Sensitive and Selective Detection of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine: A Review. Sensors. 2008; 8(12):8423-8452.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ali, Shah R.; Parajuli, Rishi R.; Balogun, Yetunde; Ma, Yufeng; He, Huixin. 2008. "A Nonoxidative Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Self-Doped Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotube Composite for Sensitive and Selective Detection of the Neurotransmitter Dopamine: A Review." Sensors 8, no. 12: 8423-8452.



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