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Special Issue "Selected Papers from the 14th International Symposium on Electromagnetic Fields-ISEF2009"

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A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2010)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Slawomir Wiak

Institute of Mechatronics and Information Systems Technical University of Lodz, Stefanowskiego 18/22, Lodz, Poland
Interests: MEMS, mechatronics, computer modeling, optimization, CAD
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ewa Napieralska Juszczak

Laboratoire Systèmes Electrotechniques et Environnement (LSEE), Université d’Artois, Technoparc Futura, Bethune 62400, France
Phone: +33321531191

Special Issue Information

About ISEF

ISEF has evolved, over the last 35 years, to become one of the most popular international events within the electromagnetic community. Faithfully followed by leading experts from around the world, the symposium offers a perfect opportunity for discussions and networking, as well as for exchanging and disseminating information about recent research advances.

The conference travels through Europe and is organized in various academic centres. Relatively often, was it held in some Polish cities as the initiative was on the part of Polish scientists. Now ISEF is much more international and successive events take places in different European academic centres renowned for electromagnetic research. The history of ISEF started 35 years ago and particular events took place in the following order: 1974 - Castle of Uniejow near Lodz, Poland, 1979 - Lodz, Poland, 1982, 1985, - Warsaw, Poland, 1987 - Pavia, Italy, 1989 - Lodz, Poland, 1991 - Southampton, UK, 1993 - Warsaw, Poland, 1995 - Thessaloniki, Greece, 1997 - Gdansk, Poland, 1999 - Pavia, Italy, 2001 - Cracow, Poland, 2003 - Maribor, Slovenia, 2005 - Vigo, Spain, 2007 - Prague, Czech Republic, 2009 – Arras, France.

The main targets of this Conference can be briefly summarized: to review, present and discuss the innovation in the Modeling, Computer Engineering, Micros-Systems, Mechatronics and Simulation Methods. ISEF is a periodic international conference whose scope covers systems theory, modelling, simulation, diagnosis, control, signal and image processing, as well as their applications.

The aim of the Conference is to bring together scientists dealing with the above mentioned fields, to help exchange information on dominant trends as well as on current research projects carried out in these disciplines throughout the world, to motivate pursuit of new research challenges, and to offer possibilities for new contacts that encourage collaboration and may give rise to joint applications for European and domestic scientific grants.

The ISEF symposium provides a unique opportunity for engineers, researchers and scientists from around the world to discuss the state of the art in computation, modelling, simulation and measurements of electromagnetic fields. In addition to the well established conference topics, the Arras meeting will introduce a new area of noise and vibration of electrical machines. Another novelty will be a special session which will include presentations by PhD students working in the field of electromagnetism.

The aim of the Conference is to discuss recent developments and application in optimisation and inverse methodologies for electromagnetic fields. The meeting is intended to be a forum for applied mathematicians, computer scientists and electrical engineers to exchange ideas, experience on the new developments, trends and applications from industrial and academic viewpoints on the topic. Particular attention is paid to optimisation of electromagnetic devices and micro-systems along with software development. An important goal of the conference is also stimulating personal contacts and co-operation, especially between industrial and academic institutions.

It is the tradition of the ISEF meetings that they try to tangle quite a vast area of computational and applied electromagnetics. Moreover, the ISEF symposia aim at joining theory and practice, thus the majority of papers are deeply rooted in engineering problems, being simultaneously of high theoretical level. The profile of the conference changes, however, year by year and one can find more and more contributions dealing with applied electromagnetics coupled with hardware and software technologies.

Looking at the ISEF topics one may also notice that more and more researchers engage into investigation of electromagnetic applications, especially these connected with mechatronics, information technologies, microsystems, medicine, biology and material sciences.

One group of contributions to ISEF Symposia is devoted to fundamental problems which appear in electromagnetics. The subject has been intensively developed from the very beginning of the history of electromagnetism. Some problems are still the subject of scientific discussions and are still unsolved; the other problems are discussed as the background for building numerical models. There is a group of contributions dealing with the analysis of material properties (magnetic, dielectric or even biological), and thus the papers have more physical than computational considerations. The next group directs the reader’s attention to similar problems but referring to more technical aspects. Indeed, one can find here the papers which deal with numerical modelling of such devices as electromagnetic devices, NMR and induction tomography, adaptive plasma, electrochemechanical converters, sensors and actuators, Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) and others. It is clearly seen that the attention here is focused on the device rather than methodology. Other group consists of the papers dealing with the application of advanced algorithms and methods to selected technical engineering problems. The papers focus his interest on such problems as optimization of a drive system, combined electromagnetic and thermal analysis by means of approximate methods, combined finite element method (FEM) and finite volume method (FVM), algorithms based on stochastic methods and others. The majority of papers concentrated on the problems how to build FEM solver or how to regard nonlinearity or dynamics in computer modelling. Also, there were strong discussions about the advantages and disadvantages such numerical methods, as FEM, FDM, BEM and during the conferences followers of each particular method tended to for separate groups. The methods of evaluation and control of electromagnetic field which based on Artificial Intelligence (AI) constitute the huge group of the papers presented during ISEF symposia.

ISEF 2009 Website: http://www.lsee.fr/isef09/

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle An Online Universal Diagnosis Procedure Using Two External Flux Sensors Applied to the AC Electrical Rotating Machines
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 10448-10466; doi:10.3390/s101110448
Received: 28 September 2010 / Revised: 27 October 2010 / Accepted: 10 November 2010 / Published: 18 November 2010
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (401 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an original non-invasive procedure for the diagnosis of electromagnetic devices, as well as AC electrical rotating machines using two external flux coil sensors that measure the external magnetic field in the machines’ vicinity. The diagnosis exploits the signal delivered [...] Read more.
This paper presents an original non-invasive procedure for the diagnosis of electromagnetic devices, as well as AC electrical rotating machines using two external flux coil sensors that measure the external magnetic field in the machines’ vicinity. The diagnosis exploits the signal delivered by the two sensors placed in particular positions. Contrary to classical methods using only one sensor, the presented method does not require any knowledge of a presumed machine’s healthy former state. On the other hand, the loading operating is not a disturbing factor but it is used to the fault discrimination. In order to present this procedure, an internal stator inter-turn short-circuit fault is considered as well. Full article
Open AccessArticle Compact Electromagnetic Bandgap Structures for Notch Band in Ultra-Wideband Applications
Sensors 2010, 10(11), 9620-9629; doi:10.3390/s101109620
Received: 15 September 2010 / Revised: 18 October 2010 / Accepted: 25 October 2010 / Published: 1 November 2010
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper introduces a novel approach to create notch band filters in the front-end of ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems based on electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures. The concept presented here can be implemented in any structure that has a microstrip in its configuration. [...] Read more.
This paper introduces a novel approach to create notch band filters in the front-end of ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems based on electromagnetic bandgap (EBG) structures. The concept presented here can be implemented in any structure that has a microstrip in its configuration. The EBG structure is first analyzed using a full wave electromagnetic solver and then optimized to work at WLAN band (5.15–5.825 GHz). Two UWB passband filters are used to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the novel EBG notch band feature. Simulation results are provided for two cases studied. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Method for Characterizing Electrical Steel Sheets in the Normal Direction
Sensors 2010, 10(10), 9053-9064; doi:10.3390/s101009053
Received: 2 September 2010 / Revised: 15 September 2010 / Accepted: 25 September 2010 / Published: 8 October 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1555 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes an experimental method to characterise magnetic laminations in the direction normal to the sheet plane. The principle, which is based on a static excitation to avoid planar eddy currents, is explained and specific test benches are proposed. Measurements of [...] Read more.
This paper proposes an experimental method to characterise magnetic laminations in the direction normal to the sheet plane. The principle, which is based on a static excitation to avoid planar eddy currents, is explained and specific test benches are proposed. Measurements of the flux density are made with a sensor moving in and out of an air-gap. A simple analytical model is derived in order to determine the permeability in the normal direction. The experimental results for grain oriented steel sheets are presented and a comparison is provided with values obtained from literature. Full article
Open AccessArticle Inverse Problem in Nondestructive Testing Using Arrayed Eddy Current Sensors
Sensors 2010, 10(9), 8696-8704; doi:10.3390/s100908696
Received: 3 August 2010 / Revised: 30 August 2010 / Accepted: 15 September 2010 / Published: 20 September 2010
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (324 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A fast crack profile reconstitution model in nondestructive testing is developed using an arrayed eddy current sensor. The inverse problem is based on an iterative solving of the direct problem using genetic algorithms. In the direct problem, assuming a current excitation, the [...] Read more.
A fast crack profile reconstitution model in nondestructive testing is developed using an arrayed eddy current sensor. The inverse problem is based on an iterative solving of the direct problem using genetic algorithms. In the direct problem, assuming a current excitation, the incident field produced by all the coils of the arrayed sensor is obtained by the translation and superposition of the 2D axisymmetric finite element results obtained for one coil; the impedance variation of each coil, due to the crack, is obtained by the reciprocity principle involving the dyadic Green’s function. For the inverse problem, the surface of the crack is subdivided into rectangular cells, and the objective function is expressed only in terms of the depth of each cell. The evaluation of the dyadic Green’s function matrix is made independently of the iterative procedure, making the inversion very fast. Full article
Open AccessArticle Combined Simulation of a Micro Permanent Magnetic Linear Contactless Displacement Sensor
Sensors 2010, 10(9), 8424-8436; doi:10.3390/s100908424
Received: 11 June 2010 / Revised: 17 August 2010 / Accepted: 6 September 2010 / Published: 9 September 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (459 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The permanent magnetic linear contactless displacement (PLCD) sensor is a new type of displacement sensor operating on the magnetic inductive principle. It has many excellent properties and has already been used for many applications. In this article a Micro-PLCD sensor which can [...] Read more.
The permanent magnetic linear contactless displacement (PLCD) sensor is a new type of displacement sensor operating on the magnetic inductive principle. It has many excellent properties and has already been used for many applications. In this article a Micro-PLCD sensor which can be used for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) measurements is designed and simulated with the CST EM STUDIO® software, including building a virtual model, magnetostatic calculations, low frequency calculations, steady current calculations and thermal calculations. The influence of some important parameters such as air gap dimension, working frequency, coil current and eddy currents etc. is studied in depth. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Flexible Temperature Sensors on Fibers
Sensors 2010, 10(9), 7934-7946; doi:10.3390/s100907934
Received: 28 June 2010 / Revised: 26 July 2010 / Accepted: 2 August 2010 / Published: 26 August 2010
Cited by 30 | PDF Full-text (434 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this paper is to present research dedicated to the elaboration of novel, miniaturized flexible temperature sensors for textronic applications. Examined sensors were manufactured on a single yarn, which ensures their high flexibility and good compatibility with textiles. Stable and [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is to present research dedicated to the elaboration of novel, miniaturized flexible temperature sensors for textronic applications. Examined sensors were manufactured on a single yarn, which ensures their high flexibility and good compatibility with textiles. Stable and linear characteristics were obtained by special technological process and applied temperature profiles. As a thermo-sensitive materials the innovative polymer compositions filled with multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used. Elaborated material was adapted to printing and dip-coating techniques to produce NTC composites. Nanotube sensors were free from tensometric effect typical for other carbon-polymer sensor, and demonstrated TCR of 0.13%/K. Obtained temperature sensors, compatible with textile structure, can be applied in rapidly developing smart textiles and be used for health and protections purposes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Non Invasive Sensors for Monitoring the Efficiency of AC Electrical Rotating Machines
Sensors 2010, 10(8), 7874-7895; doi:10.3390/s100807874
Received: 6 July 2010 / Revised: 9 August 2010 / Accepted: 12 August 2010 / Published: 23 August 2010
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1457 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a non invasive method for estimating the energy efficiency of induction motors used in industrial applications. This method is innovative because it is only based on the measurement of the external field emitted by the motor. The paper describes [...] Read more.
This paper presents a non invasive method for estimating the energy efficiency of induction motors used in industrial applications. This method is innovative because it is only based on the measurement of the external field emitted by the motor. The paper describes the sensors used, how they should be placed around the machine in order to decouple the external field components generated by both the air gap flux and the winding end-windings. The study emphasizes the influence of the eddy currents flowing in the yoke frame on the sensor position. A method to estimate the torque from the external field use is proposed. The measurements are transmitted by a wireless module (Zig-Bee) and they are centralized and stored on a PC computer. Full article
Open AccessArticle Electromagnet Weight Reduction in a Magnetic Levitation System for Contactless Delivery Applications
Sensors 2010, 10(7), 6718-6729; doi:10.3390/s100706718
Received: 1 June 2010 / Revised: 2 July 2010 / Accepted: 7 July 2010 / Published: 9 July 2010
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (849 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an optimum design of a lightweight vehicle levitation electromagnet, which also provides a passive guide force in a magnetic levitation system for contactless delivery applications. The split alignment of C-shaped electromagnets about C-shaped rails has a bad effect on [...] Read more.
This paper presents an optimum design of a lightweight vehicle levitation electromagnet, which also provides a passive guide force in a magnetic levitation system for contactless delivery applications. The split alignment of C-shaped electromagnets about C-shaped rails has a bad effect on the lateral deviation force, therefore, no-split positioning of electromagnets is better for lateral performance. This is verified by simulations and experiments. This paper presents a statistically optimized design with a high number of the design variables to reduce the weight of the electromagnet under the constraint of normal force using response surface methodology (RSM) and the kriging interpolation method. 2D and 3D magnetostatic analysis of the electromagnet are performed using ANSYS. The most effective design variables are extracted by a Pareto chart. The most desirable set is determined and the influence of each design variable on the objective function can be obtained. The generalized reduced gradient (GRG) algorithm is adopted in the kriging model. This paper’s procedure is validated by a comparison between experimental and calculation results, which shows that the predicted performance of the electromagnet designed by RSM is in good agreement with the simulation results. Full article

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