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Special Issue "Advances in Flame Retardant Polymers"

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A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. A. Richard Horrocks (Website)

Institute for Materials Research and Innovation, University of Bolton, Bolton BL3 5AB, UK
Phone: +441204903831
Fax: +44 1204 399074
Interests: polymer degradation; fire retardants; mechanisms; polymer flammability; fibers; textile flame retardants

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Polymers is dedicated to Advances in Flame Retardant Polymers. I wish to dedicate the Special Edition to my colleague and friend of 30 years, Professor Dennis Price, who sadly died in December last year at the age of 79. He was well known across the world for his 40 years active research within the field of flame retardant polymers.

While the science and technical applications of flame retardant polymers have developed considerably during the last few decades, there remains an increasing need to develop novel flame retardant polymers and polymeric systems. This is because of continuing and increasing challenges required to balance society’s desire to achieve higher levels of fire safety and technical performance on the one hand against its constraints posed by the need to minimize any potential toxicological properties and maximize environmental sustainability on the other. This issue invites original papers and reviews within the following areas:

  • Novel flame retardants and synergists
  • Flame retardant polymers having improved environmental sustainability
  • Developments in surface treatments and coatings
  • Flame retardant composites
  • Flame retardants for film and fiber applications
  • Novel flame retardant treatments for textiles
  • Characterization and testing of polymer burning behavior

Prof. Dr. A. Richard Horrocks
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed Open Access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • polymers
  • flame retardants
  • synergists
  • environment
  • surface
  • coatings
  • fibers
  • films
  • textiles
  • mechanism
  • testing

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Pyrolysis Combustion Flow Calorimetry Studies on Some Reactively Modified Polymers
Polymers 2015, 7(3), 453-467; doi:10.3390/polym7030453
Received: 8 December 2014 / Revised: 26 January 2015 / Accepted: 24 February 2015 / Published: 2 March 2015
PDF Full-text (793 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a part of our continuing work to improve the flame retardance of some chain-growth polymers, by employing a reactive route, we have synthesized several unsaturated compounds containing either phosphorus (P), or both phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), bearing groups in different [...] Read more.
As a part of our continuing work to improve the flame retardance of some chain-growth polymers, by employing a reactive route, we have synthesized several unsaturated compounds containing either phosphorus (P), or both phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), bearing groups in different chemical environments. They included: diethyl(acryloyloxymethyl)phosphonate (DEAMP); diethyl(1-acryloyloxyethyl)phosphonate (DE1AEP); diethyl-2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl phosphate (DEAEP); diethyl-2-(metharyloyloxy)ethyl phosphate (DEMEP); acrylic acid-2-(diethoxyphosphorylamino)ethyl ester (ADEPAE); acrylic acid-2-[(diethoxyphosphoryl)methyl amino]ethyl ester (ADEPMAE). Acrylonitrile (AN), methyl methacrylate (MMA) and styrene (S) were free radically copolymerised with the above mentioned comonomers. The recovered polymers were subjected to routine spectroscopic and thermo-gravimetric analyses. In addition, the combustion behaviours of homopolymers as well as the copolymers containing nominal loadings of P-, or P/N-, groups were, primarily, evaluated using pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC). PCFC has been found to be a very useful screening technique, especially, in establishing the efficacies of the different modifying groups towards flame retarding some base polymeric materials. Values of the heat release capacity (HRC) values normalised to the P contents (wt%) can be considered as useful tool in ranking the various P-containing modifying groups in terms of their efficacies to flame-retard non-halogenated chain-growth polymers considered in the present work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flame Retardant Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Flame Retardancy of PA6 Using a Guanidine Sulfamate/Melamine Polyphosphate Mixture
Polymers 2015, 7(2), 316-332; doi:10.3390/polym7020316
Received: 28 November 2014 / Revised: 15 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 February 2015 / Published: 13 February 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1716 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Polyamide 6 (PA6) is a widely-used polymer that could find applications in various sectors, including home textiles, transportation or construction. However, due to its organic nature, PA6 is flammable, and flame-retardant formulations have to be developed to comply with fire safety standards. [...] Read more.
Polyamide 6 (PA6) is a widely-used polymer that could find applications in various sectors, including home textiles, transportation or construction. However, due to its organic nature, PA6 is flammable, and flame-retardant formulations have to be developed to comply with fire safety standards. Recently, it was proposed to use ammonium sulfamate as an effective flame retardant for PA6, even at low loading content. However, processing issues could occur with this additive considering large-scale production. This paper thus studies the use of another sulfamate salt—guanidine sulfamate (GAS)—and evidences its high efficiency when combined with melamine polyphosphate (MPP) as a flame retardant for PA6. A decrease of the peak of the heat release rate by 30% compared to pure PA6 was obtained using only 5 wt% of a GAS/MPP mixture in a microscale calorimeter. Moreover, PA6 containing the mixture GAS/MPP exhibits a Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) of 37 vol% and is rated V0 for the UL 94 test (Vertical Burning Test; ASTM D 3801). The mechanisms of degradation were investigated analyzing the gas phase and solid phase when the material degrades. It was proposed that MPP and GAS modify the degradation pathway of PA6, leading to the formation of nitrile end-group-containing molecules. Moreover, the formation of a polyaromatic structure by the reaction of MPP and PA6 was also shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flame Retardant Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Flame Retardance and Physical Properties of Novel Cured Blends of Unsaturated Polyester and Furan Resins
Polymers 2015, 7(2), 298-315; doi:10.3390/polym7020298
Received: 15 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 February 2015 / Published: 11 February 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Novel blends of two furan resins with an unsaturated polyester have been prepared and cured by parallel free radical (for the unsaturated polyester) and acid-catalysed crosslinking (for the furan resin) to give co-cured composite materials. Although these materials have inferior physical properties, [...] Read more.
Novel blends of two furan resins with an unsaturated polyester have been prepared and cured by parallel free radical (for the unsaturated polyester) and acid-catalysed crosslinking (for the furan resin) to give co-cured composite materials. Although these materials have inferior physical properties, such as low Tg and low storage modulus compared with those of unsaturated polyester and furan resins alone, they show markedly improved flame retardance compared with that of the normally highly flammable unsaturated polyester. This increased flame retardance arises from a condensed phase mechanism in which the furanic component forms a semi-protective char, reducing rates of thermal degradation and total heat release and heat of combustion. The blends also burn with reduced smoke output compared with that from unsaturated polyester alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flame Retardant Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Development of a Halogen Free Flame Retardant Masterbatch for Polypropylene Fibers
Polymers 2015, 7(2), 220-234; doi:10.3390/polym7020220
Received: 30 November 2014 / Revised: 21 January 2015 / Accepted: 28 January 2015 / Published: 9 February 2015
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3795 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The efficiency of new phosphinates, in combination with melamine cyanurate, was studied using different polypropylene textile structures. The influence of different ratios up to a total amount of 6 wt% in the polypropylene fiber was investigated using the limiting oxygen index (LOI) [...] Read more.
The efficiency of new phosphinates, in combination with melamine cyanurate, was studied using different polypropylene textile structures. The influence of different ratios up to a total amount of 6 wt% in the polypropylene fiber was investigated using the limiting oxygen index (LOI) and cone calorimeter method for research purposes, while the performances were correlated to the standards FMVSS 302 (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards) and DIN 4102-l (Deutsches Institut für Normung) used more specifically for automotive and building sector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flame Retardant Polymers)
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Open AccessArticle Flame-Retardancy Properties of Intumescent Ammonium Poly(Phosphate) and Mineral Filler Magnesium Hydroxide in Combination with Graphene
Polymers 2014, 6(11), 2875-2895; doi:10.3390/polym6112875
Received: 14 October 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 17 | PDF Full-text (3836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Thermally reduced graphite oxide (TRGO), containing only four single carbon layers on average, was combined with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and magnesium hydroxide (MH), respectively, in polypropylene (PP). The nanoparticle’s influence on different flame-retarding systems and possible synergisms in pyrolysis, reaction to small [...] Read more.
Thermally reduced graphite oxide (TRGO), containing only four single carbon layers on average, was combined with ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and magnesium hydroxide (MH), respectively, in polypropylene (PP). The nanoparticle’s influence on different flame-retarding systems and possible synergisms in pyrolysis, reaction to small flame, fire behavior and mechanical properties were determined. TRGO has a positive effect on the yield stress, which is decreased by both flame-retardants and acts as a synergist with regard to Young’s modulus. The applicability and effects of TRGO as an adjuvant in combination with conventional flame-retardants depends strongly on the particular flame-retardancy mechanism. In the intumescent system, even small concentrations of TRGO change the viscosity of the pyrolysing melt crucially. In case of oxygen index (OI) and UL 94 test, the addition of increasing amounts of TRGO to PP/APP had a negative impact on the oxygen index and the UL 94 classification. Nevertheless, systems with only low amounts (≤1 wt%) of TRGO achieved V-0 classification in the UL 94 test and high oxygen indices (>31 vol%). TRGO strengthens the residue structure of MH and therefore functions as a strong synergist in terms of OI and UL 94 classification (from HB to V-0). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flame Retardant Polymers)
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Review

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Open AccessReview An Overview of Mode of Action and Analytical Methods for Evaluation of Gas Phase Activities of Flame Retardants
Polymers 2015, 7(3), 504-526; doi:10.3390/polym7030504
Received: 30 November 2014 / Revised: 13 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 February 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1142 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The latest techniques used to prove, describe and analyze the gas phase activity of a fire retardant used in polymeric materials are briefly reviewed. Classical techniques, such as thermogravimetric analysis or microscale combustion calorimetry, as well as complex and advanced analytical techniques, [...] Read more.
The latest techniques used to prove, describe and analyze the gas phase activity of a fire retardant used in polymeric materials are briefly reviewed. Classical techniques, such as thermogravimetric analysis or microscale combustion calorimetry, as well as complex and advanced analytical techniques, such as modified microscale combustion calorimeter (MCC), molecular beam mass spectroscopy and vacuum ultra violet (VUV) photoionization spectroscopy coupled with time of flight MS (TOF-MS), are described in this review. The recent advances in analytical techniques help not only in determining the gas phase activity of the flame-retardants but also identify possible reactive species responsible for gas phase flame inhibition. The complete understanding of the decomposition pathways and the flame retardant activity of a flame retardant system is essential for the development of new eco-friendly-tailored flame retardant molecules with high flame retardant efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flame Retardant Polymers)
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Open AccessReview A Comparative Analysis of Nanoparticle Adsorption as Fire-Protection Approach for Fabrics
Polymers 2015, 7(1), 47-68; doi:10.3390/polym7010047
Received: 24 November 2014 / Accepted: 24 December 2014 / Published: 31 December 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1690 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present paper critically analyzes the potential for commercially available nanoparticles for enhancing the flame-retardant properties of synthetic and natural fabrics and their corresponding blends. Each nanoparticle has been applied to the fabric through a finishing-like process (namely impregnation/exhausting or, more simply, [...] Read more.
The present paper critically analyzes the potential for commercially available nanoparticles for enhancing the flame-retardant properties of synthetic and natural fabrics and their corresponding blends. Each nanoparticle has been applied to the fabric through a finishing-like process (namely impregnation/exhausting or, more simply, nanoparticle adsorption) in aqueous media and the resulting properties of these fabrics have been assessed in terms of combustion behavior by use of a cone calorimeter under a heat flux of 35 kW/m2. The influence of these nanoparticles on the main combustion parameters of polyester, cotton, and some of their blends has been thoroughly discussed. As a result of this discussion, a flame-retardant efficiency ranking of the nanoparticles under review has been established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flame Retardant Polymers)

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