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Polymers 2015, 7(2), 316-332; doi:10.3390/polym7020316

Flame Retardancy of PA6 Using a Guanidine Sulfamate/Melamine Polyphosphate Mixture

1
R2Fire/UMET—UMR/CNRS 8207, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Lille (ENSCL), CS 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex, France
2
Key Laboratory of Carbon Fiber and Functional Polymers, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education, Beijing 100029, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alexander Morgan and A. Richard Horrocks
Received: 28 November 2014 / Revised: 15 December 2014 / Accepted: 4 February 2015 / Published: 13 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flame Retardant Polymers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1716 KB, uploaded 13 February 2015]   |  

Abstract

Polyamide 6 (PA6) is a widely-used polymer that could find applications in various sectors, including home textiles, transportation or construction. However, due to its organic nature, PA6 is flammable, and flame-retardant formulations have to be developed to comply with fire safety standards. Recently, it was proposed to use ammonium sulfamate as an effective flame retardant for PA6, even at low loading content. However, processing issues could occur with this additive considering large-scale production. This paper thus studies the use of another sulfamate salt—guanidine sulfamate (GAS)—and evidences its high efficiency when combined with melamine polyphosphate (MPP) as a flame retardant for PA6. A decrease of the peak of the heat release rate by 30% compared to pure PA6 was obtained using only 5 wt% of a GAS/MPP mixture in a microscale calorimeter. Moreover, PA6 containing the mixture GAS/MPP exhibits a Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) of 37 vol% and is rated V0 for the UL 94 test (Vertical Burning Test; ASTM D 3801). The mechanisms of degradation were investigated analyzing the gas phase and solid phase when the material degrades. It was proposed that MPP and GAS modify the degradation pathway of PA6, leading to the formation of nitrile end-group-containing molecules. Moreover, the formation of a polyaromatic structure by the reaction of MPP and PA6 was also shown. View Full-Text
Keywords: polyamide 6; guanidine sulfamate; flame retardancy polyamide 6; guanidine sulfamate; flame retardancy
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Coquelle, M.; Duquesne, S.; Casetta, M.; Sun, J.; Gu, X.; Zhang, S.; Bourbigot, S. Flame Retardancy of PA6 Using a Guanidine Sulfamate/Melamine Polyphosphate Mixture. Polymers 2015, 7, 316-332.

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