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Special Issue "Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Baljinder Kandola

Institute for Materials Res. & Innovation, University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB, UK
E-Mail
Phone: + 44 001204 903517
Interests: flammability and fire retardancy of polymers; textiles and fibre-reinforced thermoplastic/thermoset composites; thermal degradation of polymers; high performance textiles; biocomposites; development of proactive flame retardant formulations/materials; nanocomposites; heat and mass transfer in polymers and composites; numerical modelling of combustion induced mechanical properties degradation of polymers
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Abderrahim Boudenne

Université Paris-Est Créteil Val de Marne/CERTES 61 Av. du Général de Gaulle 94010, Créteil, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: polymeric composites and blends; green and bio-composite materials; materials with energy efficiency in buildings; thermal, electrical and mechanical testing; experimental and numerical modeling
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Paul Kiekens

Department of Textiles, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +32 9 264 57 34
Interests: layer-by-layer deposition; nanoparticles; environmental effects

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Replacement of existing flame retardants (FR) with sustainable and environmentally friendly alternatives for textiles, polymers, and composite materials in domestic, transport (automotive, rail, aerospace, and marine), civil emergency and military, construction and other industries requires a multidisciplinary approach from textile technology to the physics and chemistry of fire. This Special Issue of Polymers is the result of the scientific work and subsequent discussions and collaborations that took place during four years (May 2012–May 2016) of the COST Action MP1105 "FLARETEX: Sustainable flame retardancy for textiles and related materials based on nanoparticles substituting conventional chemicals". The Action involved 30 countries and more than 850 participants attended the 20 organized events up to December 2015; four events including the final conference are planned for 2016. The participants included post graduate students, early career researchers, established academics, engineers, and researchers/technologists from industry. The work done by the members of this Action from 2012 until 2016 is an important source of information regarding recent developments in the area of fire safety, and environmentally friendly flame retardant solutions for textiles and related materials.

This Special Issue of Polymers is devoted to the “Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products", the theme of the COST Action MP 1105. This Special Issue will include papers with the most recent advances on Thermal Stability and Fire Retardancy of Textiles, Polymer Blends and Composite Materials. The publication will respect all rules and procedures requested by the journal and by the Editorial Office of MDPI. On behalf of the Guest Editors, we would like to invite you to submit your unpublished and original results which may be part of this Special Issue.

Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Novel Flame Retardants
  • Toxicological and environmental aspects
  • Processing and applications
  • Testing and standardization

Acknowledgment: This special issue is based upon work from COST Action MP1105 FLARETEX, supported by COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology)

Prof. Dr. Baljinder Kandola
Prof. Dr. Abderrahim Boudenne
Prof. Dr. Paul Kiekens
Guest Editors

FLARETEX    General    General 

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • flame retardants
  • textiles
  • polymers
  • composites
  • surface coatings
  • fibers
  • films
  • fire testing
  • thermal degradation
  • fire toxicity
  • environmentally friendly solutions

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle New Flexible Flame Retardant Coatings Based on Siloxane Resin and Ethylene-Vinyl Chloride Copolymer
Polymers 2016, 8(12), 419; doi:10.3390/polym8120419
Received: 17 July 2016 / Revised: 18 November 2016 / Accepted: 29 November 2016 / Published: 2 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2515 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work presents the effectiveness of a phosphorus-containing flame retardant based on siloxane resin and ethylene-vinyl chloride copolymer as a back-coating of fabrics. The possibility of improving flame retardant efficiency of this composition by introducing fumed silica, montmorillonite, carbon nanotubes, and graphite was
[...] Read more.
This work presents the effectiveness of a phosphorus-containing flame retardant based on siloxane resin and ethylene-vinyl chloride copolymer as a back-coating of fabrics. The possibility of improving flame retardant efficiency of this composition by introducing fumed silica, montmorillonite, carbon nanotubes, and graphite was evaluated. The effect of each additive on the efficiency of the composition was examined separately. Flammability tests of flame retardant-coated fabrics (natural and synthetic) were carried out using pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC), cone calorimetry, and limiting oxygen index determination. An assessment of the ignitability of upholstered furniture containing flame retardant fabric, resistance to washing, antifungal activity, and some of the utility properties of the final newly-developed flame-retardant coating was conducted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessArticle Structure–Property Studies on a New Family of Halogen Free Flame Retardants Based on Sulfenamide and Related Structures
Polymers 2016, 8(10), 360; doi:10.3390/polym8100360
Received: 20 July 2016 / Revised: 8 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
PDF Full-text (1800 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A wide variety of molecules containing S–N or S–N–S cores were synthesized, and their flame retardant properties in polypropylene (PP), low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) were investigated. In addition, polymers or oligomers bearing the sulfenamide functionality (SN) were also synthesized. It
[...] Read more.
A wide variety of molecules containing S–N or S–N–S cores were synthesized, and their flame retardant properties in polypropylene (PP), low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polystyrene (PS) were investigated. In addition, polymers or oligomers bearing the sulfenamide functionality (SN) were also synthesized. It was shown that this radical generator family based on sulfenamides is very versatile in terms of structural modifications, and the thermal decomposition range can be easily adjusted by changing the R groups attached to the core. The thermal stabilities of the different sulfenamides were examined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Radicals generated by the homolytic cleavage of the S–N or S–N–S bonds at an elevated temperature can effectively interact with the intermediate products of polymer thermolysis and provide excellent flame retardant properties. The choice of most suitable SN-structure varies depending on the polymer type. For polypropylene DIN 4102-1 B2 and UL94 VTM-2 classifications were achieved with only 0.5 to 1 wt % of sulfenamide, and, in some cases, no flaming dripping was observed. Also for LDPE thin films, sulfenamides offered the DIN 4102-1 B2 rating at low dosage. In the case of polystyrene, the very stringent UL94 V-0 classification was even achieved at a loading of 5 wt % of sulfenamide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of the Thermal Insulation of Traditional and Newly Designed Protective Clothing for Foundry Workers
Polymers 2016, 8(10), 348; doi:10.3390/polym8100348
Received: 8 July 2016 / Revised: 2 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 23 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1311 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An objective of the undertaken research was checking the applicability of aluminized basalt fabrics for the production of clothing for foundry workers. The results of flammability, the resistance to contact, convective and radiation heat, as well as the resistance to big molten metal
[...] Read more.
An objective of the undertaken research was checking the applicability of aluminized basalt fabrics for the production of clothing for foundry workers. The results of flammability, the resistance to contact, convective and radiation heat, as well as the resistance to big molten metal splashes confirmed the thesis of applicability of the packages with the use of aluminized basalt fabric content for the assumed purpose; therefore, such protective clothing was produced. Thermal comfort of foundry workers is very important and related to many factors, i.e., the structure of the protective clothing package, the number of layers, their thickness, the distance between the body and appropriate underwear. In the paper, a comparison of the results of thermal insulation measurement of two kinds of protective clothing is presented: the traditional one made of aluminized glass fabrics and the new one made of aluminized basalt fabrics. Measurements of clothing thermal insulation were conducted using a thermal manikin dressed in the protective clothing and three kinds of underwear products covering the upper and lower part of the manikin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessArticle Factors for Consideration in an Open-Flame Test for Assessing Fire Blocking Performance of Barrier Fabrics
Polymers 2016, 8(9), 342; doi:10.3390/polym8090342
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 24 August 2016 / Accepted: 6 September 2016 / Published: 19 September 2016
PDF Full-text (2908 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main objective of the work reported here is to assess factors that could affect the outcome of a proposed open flame test for barrier fabrics (BF-open flame test). The BF-open flame test characterizes barrier effectiveness by monitoring the ignition of a flexible
[...] Read more.
The main objective of the work reported here is to assess factors that could affect the outcome of a proposed open flame test for barrier fabrics (BF-open flame test). The BF-open flame test characterizes barrier effectiveness by monitoring the ignition of a flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) layer placed in contact with the upper side of the barrier fabric, exposed to a burner flame from below. Particular attention is given to the factors that influence the ignitibility of the FPUF, including thermal resistance, permeability, and structural integrity of the barrier fabrics (BFs). A number of barrier fabrics, displaying a wide range of the properties, are tested with the BF-open flame test. Visual observations of the FPUF burning behavior and BF char patterns, in addition to heat flux measurements on the unexposed side of the barrier fabrics, are used to assess the protective performance of the BF specimen under the open flame test conditions. The temperature and heat transfer measurements on the unexposed side of the BF and subsequent ranking of BFs for their thermal protective performance suggest that the BF-open flame test does not differentiate barrier fabrics based on their heat transfer properties. A similar conclusion is reached with regard to BF permeability characterized at room temperature. However, the outcome of this BF-open flame test is found to be heavily influenced by the structural integrity of thermally degraded BF. The BF-open flame test, in its current form, only ignited FPUF when structural failure of the barrier was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessArticle PLA with Intumescent System Containing Lignin and Ammonium Polyphosphate for Flame Retardant Textile
Polymers 2016, 8(9), 331; doi:10.3390/polym8090331
Received: 12 July 2016 / Revised: 26 August 2016 / Accepted: 29 August 2016 / Published: 5 September 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (2747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Using bio-based polymers to replace of polymers from petrochemicals in the manufacture of textile fibers is a possible way to improve sustainable development for the textile industry. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the available bio-based polymers. One way to improve the fire
[...] Read more.
Using bio-based polymers to replace of polymers from petrochemicals in the manufacture of textile fibers is a possible way to improve sustainable development for the textile industry. Polylactic acid (PLA) is one of the available bio-based polymers. One way to improve the fire behavior of this bio-based polymer is to add an intumescent formulation mainly composed of acid and carbon sources. In order to optimize the amount of bio-based product in the final material composition, lignin from wood waste was selected as the carbon source. Different formulations of and/or ammonium polyphosphate (AP) were prepared by melt extrusion and then hot-pressed into sheets. The thermal properties (thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)) and fire properties (UL-94) were measured. The spinnability of the various composites was evaluated. The mechanical properties and physical aspect (microscopy) of PLA multifilaments with lignin (LK) were checked. A PLA multifilament with up to 10 wt % of intumescent formulation was processed, and the fire behavior of PLA fabrics with lignin/AP formulation was studied by cone calorimeter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessArticle Toxic Combustion Product Yields as a Function of Equivalence Ratio and Flame Retardants in Under-Ventilated Fires: Bench-Large-Scale Comparisons
Polymers 2016, 8(9), 330; doi:10.3390/polym8090330
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 3 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In large-scale compartment fires; combustion product yields vary with combustion conditions mainly in relation to the fuel:air equivalence ratio (Φ) and the effects of gas-phase flame retardants. Yields of products of inefficient combustion; including the major toxic products CO; HCN and organic irritants;
[...] Read more.
In large-scale compartment fires; combustion product yields vary with combustion conditions mainly in relation to the fuel:air equivalence ratio (Φ) and the effects of gas-phase flame retardants. Yields of products of inefficient combustion; including the major toxic products CO; HCN and organic irritants; increase considerably as combustion changes from well-ventilated (Φ < 1) to under-ventilated (Φ = 1–3). It is therefore essential that bench-scale toxicity tests reproduce this behaviour across the Φ range. Yield data from repeat compartment fire tests for any specific fuel show some variation on either side of a best-fit curve for CO yield as a function of Φ. In order to quantify the extent to which data from the steady state tube furnace (SSTF [1]; ISO TS19700 [2]) represents compartment fire yields; the range and average deviations of SSTF data for CO yields from the compartment fire best-fit curve were compared to those for direct compartment fire measurements for six different polymeric fuels with textile and non-textile applications and for generic post-flashover fire CO yield data. The average yields; range and standard deviations of the SSTF data around the best-fit compartment fire curves were found to be close to those for the compartment fire data. It is concluded that SSTF data are as good a predictor of compartment fire yields as are repeat compartment fire test data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessArticle Heat Release Property and Fire Performance of the Nomex/Cotton Blend Fabric Treated with a Nonformaldehyde Organophosphorus System
Polymers 2016, 8(9), 327; doi:10.3390/polym8090327
Received: 18 June 2016 / Revised: 7 August 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 2 September 2016
PDF Full-text (4212 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Blending Nomex® with cotton improves its affordability and serviceability. Because cotton is a highly flammable fiber, Nomex®/cotton blend fabrics containing more than 20% cotton require flame-retardant treatment. In this research, combination of a hydroxyl functional organophosphorus oligmer (HFPO) and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic
[...] Read more.
Blending Nomex® with cotton improves its affordability and serviceability. Because cotton is a highly flammable fiber, Nomex®/cotton blend fabrics containing more than 20% cotton require flame-retardant treatment. In this research, combination of a hydroxyl functional organophosphorus oligmer (HFPO) and 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) was used for flame retardant finishing of the 65/35 Nomex®/cotton blend woven fabric. The system contains HFPO as a flame retardant, BTCA as a bonding agent, and triethenolamine (TEA) as a reactive additive used to enhance the performance of HFPO/BTCA. Addition of TEA improves the hydrolysis resistance of the HFPO/BTCA crosslinked polymeric network on the blend fabric. Additionally, TEA enhances HFPO’s flame retardant performance by reducing formation of calcium salts and also by providing synergistic nitrogen to the treated blend fabric. The Nomex®/cotton blend fabric treated with the HFPO/BTCA/TEA system shows high flame resistance and high laundering durability at a relatively low HFPO concentration of 8% (w/w). The heat release properties of the treated Nomex®/cotton blend fabric were measured using microscale combustion calorimetry. The functions of BTCA; HFPO and TEA on the Nomex®/cotton blend fabric were elucidated based on the heat release properties, char formation, and fire performance of the treated blend fabric. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessArticle Flame Retardancy of Sorbitol Based Bioepoxy via Combined Solid and Gas Phase Action
Polymers 2016, 8(9), 322; doi:10.3390/polym8090322
Received: 7 June 2016 / Revised: 6 July 2016 / Accepted: 24 August 2016 / Published: 30 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1883 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Flame-retarded bioepoxy resins were prepared with the application of commercially available sorbitol polyglycidyl ether (SPE). The additive-type flame retardancy of the cycloaliphatic amine-cured SPE was investigated. Three-percent phosphorus (P)-containing samples were prepared with the application of the liquid resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP), the
[...] Read more.
Flame-retarded bioepoxy resins were prepared with the application of commercially available sorbitol polyglycidyl ether (SPE). The additive-type flame retardancy of the cycloaliphatic amine-cured SPE was investigated. Three-percent phosphorus (P)-containing samples were prepared with the application of the liquid resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP), the solid ammonium polyphosphate (APP), and by combining them. Synergistic effect was found between the inorganic APP and the organophosphorus RDP, when applied in combination: formulations applying RDP or APP alone showed increased limiting oxygen index (LOI) values, however, their UL-94 standard ratings remained HB. When the same amount of P originated from the two additives, V-0, self-extinguishing rating and LOI value of 34% (v/v) was reached. By the combined approach the heat release rate of SPE could be lowered by approximately 60%. The assumed balanced solid and gas phase mechanism was confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) analysis (of the gases formed during laser pyrolysis), attenuated total reflection-infrared spectrometry (ATR-IR) analysis (of the charred residues), as well as by mechanical testing (of the char obtained after combustion). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessArticle Silica Treatments: A Fire Retardant Strategy for Hemp Fabric/Epoxy Composites
Polymers 2016, 8(8), 313; doi:10.3390/polym8080313
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 30 July 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 22 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (8668 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, for the first time, inexpensive waterglass solutions are exploited as a new, simple and ecofriendly chemical approach for promoting the formation of a silica-based coating on hemp fabrics, able to act as a thermal shield and to protect the latter
[...] Read more.
In this paper, for the first time, inexpensive waterglass solutions are exploited as a new, simple and ecofriendly chemical approach for promoting the formation of a silica-based coating on hemp fabrics, able to act as a thermal shield and to protect the latter from heat sources. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis confirm the formation of –C–O–Si– covalent bonds between the coating and the cellulosic substrate. The proposed waterglass treatment, which is resistant to washing, seems to be very effective for improving the fire behavior of hemp fabric/epoxy composites, also in combination with ammonium polyphosphate. In particular, the exploitation of hemp surface treatment and Ammonium Polyphosphate (APP) addition to epoxy favors a remarkable decrease of the Heat Release Rate (HRR), Total Heat Release (THR), Total Smoke Release (TSR) and Specific Extinction Area (SEA) (respectively by 83%, 35%, 45% and 44%) as compared to untreated hemp/epoxy composites, favoring the formation of a very stable char, as also assessed by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Because of the low interfacial adhesion between the fabrics and the epoxy matrix, the obtained composites show low strength and stiffness; however, the energy absorbed by the material is higher when using treated hemp. The presence of APP in the epoxy matrix does not affect the mechanical behavior of the composites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Flammability of Cellulose-Based Fibers and the Effect of Structure of Phosphorus Compounds on Their Flame Retardancy
Polymers 2016, 8(8), 293; doi:10.3390/polym8080293
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 4 August 2016 / Published: 10 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1090 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Cellulose fibers are promoted for use in various textile applications due their sustainable nature. Cellulose-based fibers vary considerably in their mechanical and flammability properties depending on their chemical composition. The chemical composition of a cellulose-based fiber is further dependent on their source (i.e.,
[...] Read more.
Cellulose fibers are promoted for use in various textile applications due their sustainable nature. Cellulose-based fibers vary considerably in their mechanical and flammability properties depending on their chemical composition. The chemical composition of a cellulose-based fiber is further dependent on their source (i.e., seed, leaf, cane, fruit, wood, bast, and grass). Being organic in nature, cellulose fibers, and their products thereof, pose considerable fire risk. In this work we have compared the flammability properties of cellulose fibers obtained from two different sources (i.e., cotton and peat). Compared to cotton cellulose textiles, peat-based cellulose textiles burn longer with a prominent afterglow which can be attributed to the presence of lignin in its structure. A series of phosphoramidates were synthesized and applied on both cellulose textiles. From thermogravimetric and pyrolysis combustion flow analysis of the treated cellulose, we were able to relate the flame retardant efficacy of the synthesized phosphorus compounds to their chemical structure. The phosphoramidates with methyl phosphoester groups exhibited higher condensed phase flame retardant effects on both types of cellulose textiles investigated in this study. In addition, the bis-phosphoramidates exhibited higher flame retardant efficacy compared to the mono-phosphoramidates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Flame Retardant Polyamide Fibres: The Challenge of Minimising Flame Retardant Additive Contents with Added Nanoclays
Polymers 2016, 8(8), 288; doi:10.3390/polym8080288
Received: 21 June 2016 / Revised: 26 July 2016 / Accepted: 2 August 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work shows that halogen-free, flame retarded polyamide 6 (PA6), fabrics may be produced in which component fibres still have acceptable tensile properties and low levels (preferably ≤10 wt %) of additives by incorporating a nanoclay along with two types of flame retardant
[...] Read more.
This work shows that halogen-free, flame retarded polyamide 6 (PA6), fabrics may be produced in which component fibres still have acceptable tensile properties and low levels (preferably ≤10 wt %) of additives by incorporating a nanoclay along with two types of flame retardant formulations. The latter include (i) aluminium diethyl phosphinate (AlPi) at 10 wt %, known to work principally in the vapour phase and (ii) ammonium sulphamate (AS)/dipentaerythritol (DP) system present at 2.5 and 1 wt % respectively, believed to be condense phase active. The nanoclay chosen is an organically modified montmorillonite clay, Cloisite 25A. The effect of each additive system is analysed in terms of its ability to maximise both filament tensile properties relative to 100% PA6 and flame retardant behaviour of knitted fabrics in a vertical orientation. None of the AlPi-containing formulations achieved self-extinguishability, although the presence of nanoclay promoted lower burning and melt dripping rates. The AS/DP-containing formulations with total flame retardant levels of 5.5 wt % or less showed far superior properties and with nanoclay, showed fabric extinction times ≤ 39 s and reduced melt dripping. The tensile and flammability results, supported by thermogravimetric analysis, have been interpreted in terms of the mechanism of action of each flame retardant/nanoclay type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Key Role of Reinforcing Structures in the Flame Retardant Performance of Self-Reinforced Polypropylene Composites
Polymers 2016, 8(8), 289; doi:10.3390/polym8080289
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 30 July 2016 / Accepted: 3 August 2016 / Published: 8 August 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2043 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The flame retardant synergism between highly stretched polymer fibres and intumescent flame retardant systems was investigated in self-reinforced polypropylene composites. It was found that the structure of reinforcement, such as degree of molecular orientation, fibre alignment and weave type, has a particular effect
[...] Read more.
The flame retardant synergism between highly stretched polymer fibres and intumescent flame retardant systems was investigated in self-reinforced polypropylene composites. It was found that the structure of reinforcement, such as degree of molecular orientation, fibre alignment and weave type, has a particular effect on the fire performance of the intumescent system. As little as 7.2 wt % additive content, one third of the amount needed in non-reinforced polypropylene matrix, was sufficient to reach a UL-94 V-0 rating. The best result was found in self-reinforced polypropylene composites reinforced with unidirectional fibres. In addition to the fire retardant performance, the mechanical properties were also evaluated. The maximum was found at optimal consolidation temperature, while the flame retardant additive in the matrix did not influence the mechanical performance up to the investigated 13 wt % concentration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessArticle Application of Flame-Retardant Double-Layered Shell Microcapsules to Nonwoven Polyester
Polymers 2016, 8(7), 267; doi:10.3390/polym8070267
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 5 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 22 July 2016
PDF Full-text (9219 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A microencapsulated flame retardant was used in order to produce a flame retardant nonwoven substrate. Melamine-formaldehyde polymer-shell microcapsules, containing Afflamit® PLF 280 (resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate)) as the core substance, were coated by an outer thermoplastic wall (polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate)), before
[...] Read more.
A microencapsulated flame retardant was used in order to produce a flame retardant nonwoven substrate. Melamine-formaldehyde polymer-shell microcapsules, containing Afflamit® PLF 280 (resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate)) as the core substance, were coated by an outer thermoplastic wall (polystyrene (PS) or poly(methyl methacrylate)), before being applied to a core/sheet-type bi-component PET/co-PET spunbond nonwoven substrate using impregnation. The outer wall of the microcapsules was heated to the softening temperature of the thermoplastic shell in order to be bonded onto the textile fibres. The thermal stability of the microcapsules was examined using thermogravimetric analysis. The textile samples were observed with a scanning electron microscope, and the flame retardancy performance was evaluated using the NF P92-504 standard. The results show that the composition of the outer polymeric shell affected the thermal stability of the microcapsules, since the particles with a PS shell are more stable. Furthermore, the microcapsules were more located at the nonwoven surface without affecting the thickness of the samples. Based on the results of the NF P92-504 test, the flame spread rate was relatively low for all of the tested formulations. Only the formulation with a low content of PS was classified M2 while the others were M3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessArticle Adsorption and Flame Retardant Properties of Bio-Based Phytic Acid on Wool Fabric
Polymers 2016, 8(4), 122; doi:10.3390/polym8040122
Received: 25 February 2016 / Revised: 26 March 2016 / Accepted: 30 March 2016 / Published: 5 April 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (13610 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bio-based phytic acid (PA) as a nontoxic naturally occurring compound is a promising prospect for flame-retardant (FR) modifications to polymers. In this work, PA was applied to wool fabric using an exhaustion technique, and the adsorption and FR properties of PA on wool
[...] Read more.
Bio-based phytic acid (PA) as a nontoxic naturally occurring compound is a promising prospect for flame-retardant (FR) modifications to polymers. In this work, PA was applied to wool fabric using an exhaustion technique, and the adsorption and FR properties of PA on wool fabric were studied. The flame retardancy of the treated wool fabrics depended greatly on the adsorption quantity of PA, which was related to the pH of treatment solution, immersing temperature and initial PA concentration. The Langmuir adsorption of PA took place due to electrostatic interactions between PA and wool fiber. The limiting oxygen index, vertical burning and pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry tests revealed that the treated wool fabrics exhibited good flame retardancy. The measurements of the phosphorus content of the burned fabric residues and thermogravimetric analyses suggested that a significant condensed-phase FR action was applicable to the PA treated fabrics. PA treatment was found to have little adverse effect on the whiteness and mechanical performance of wool. Additionally, the washing resistance of the FR fabrics should be further improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Recent Advances in the Design of Water Based-Flame Retardant Coatings for Polyester and Polyester-Cotton Blends
Polymers 2016, 8(10), 357; doi:10.3390/polym8100357
Received: 19 June 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 1 October 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2880 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last ten years a new trend of research activities regarding the flame retardancy of polymeric materials has arisen. Indeed, the continuous search for new flame retardant systems able to replace the traditional approaches has encouraged alternative solutions, mainly centred on nanotechnology.
[...] Read more.
Over the last ten years a new trend of research activities regarding the flame retardancy of polymeric materials has arisen. Indeed, the continuous search for new flame retardant systems able to replace the traditional approaches has encouraged alternative solutions, mainly centred on nanotechnology. In this context, the deposition of nanostructured coatings on fabrics appears to be the most appealing and performance suitable approach. To this aim, different strategies can be exploited: from the deposition of a single monolayer consisting of inorganic nanoparticles (single-step adsorption) to the building-up of more complex architectures derived from layer by layer assembly (multi-step adsorption). The present paper aims to review the application of such systems in the field of polyester and polyester-cotton blend fabrics. The results collated by the authors are discussed and compared with those published in the literature on the basis of the different deposition methods adopted. A critical analysis of the advantages and disadvantages exhibited by these approaches is also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Open AccessReview Recent Advances for Flame Retardancy of Textiles Based on Phosphorus Chemistry
Polymers 2016, 8(9), 319; doi:10.3390/polym8090319
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 4 August 2016 / Accepted: 19 August 2016 / Published: 25 August 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (6231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper aims at updating the progress on the phosphorus-based flame retardants specifically designed and developed for fibers and fabrics (particularly referring to cotton, polyester and their blends) over the last five years. Indeed, as clearly depicted by Horrocks in a recent review,
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This paper aims at updating the progress on the phosphorus-based flame retardants specifically designed and developed for fibers and fabrics (particularly referring to cotton, polyester and their blends) over the last five years. Indeed, as clearly depicted by Horrocks in a recent review, the world of flame retardants for textiles is still experiencing some changes that are focused on topics like the improvement of its effectiveness and the replacement of toxic chemical products with counterparts that have low environmental impact and, hence, are more sustainable. In this context, phosphorus-based compounds play a key role and may lead, possibly in combination with silicon- or nitrogen-containing structures, to the design of new, efficient flame retardants for fibers and fabrics. Therefore, this review thoroughly describes the advances and the potentialities offered by the phosphorus-based products recently developed at a lab-scale, highlighting the current limitations, open challenges and some perspectives toward their possible exploitation at a larger scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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