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Polymers 2016, 8(9), 330; doi:10.3390/polym8090330

Toxic Combustion Product Yields as a Function of Equivalence Ratio and Flame Retardants in Under-Ventilated Fires: Bench-Large-Scale Comparisons

Hartford Environmental Research, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL95DY, UK
Academic Editors: Baljinder Kandola, Abderrahim Boudenne and Paul Kiekens
Received: 15 June 2016 / Revised: 3 August 2016 / Accepted: 11 August 2016 / Published: 3 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Flame Retardancy of Textile Related Products)
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Abstract

In large-scale compartment fires; combustion product yields vary with combustion conditions mainly in relation to the fuel:air equivalence ratio (Φ) and the effects of gas-phase flame retardants. Yields of products of inefficient combustion; including the major toxic products CO; HCN and organic irritants; increase considerably as combustion changes from well-ventilated (Φ < 1) to under-ventilated (Φ = 1–3). It is therefore essential that bench-scale toxicity tests reproduce this behaviour across the Φ range. Yield data from repeat compartment fire tests for any specific fuel show some variation on either side of a best-fit curve for CO yield as a function of Φ. In order to quantify the extent to which data from the steady state tube furnace (SSTF [1]; ISO TS19700 [2]) represents compartment fire yields; the range and average deviations of SSTF data for CO yields from the compartment fire best-fit curve were compared to those for direct compartment fire measurements for six different polymeric fuels with textile and non-textile applications and for generic post-flashover fire CO yield data. The average yields; range and standard deviations of the SSTF data around the best-fit compartment fire curves were found to be close to those for the compartment fire data. It is concluded that SSTF data are as good a predictor of compartment fire yields as are repeat compartment fire test data. View Full-Text
Keywords: toxic products; combustion; carbon monoxide; hydrogen cyanide; flame retardant; equivalence ratio; fire; polyamide; cellulosic; polyisocyanurate toxic products; combustion; carbon monoxide; hydrogen cyanide; flame retardant; equivalence ratio; fire; polyamide; cellulosic; polyisocyanurate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Purser, D.A. Toxic Combustion Product Yields as a Function of Equivalence Ratio and Flame Retardants in Under-Ventilated Fires: Bench-Large-Scale Comparisons. Polymers 2016, 8, 330.

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