Special Issue "Polymers from Biomass"
A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).
Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2013)
Prof. Dr. Walter Leitner
Lehrstuhl für Technische Chemie und Petrolchemie, Institut für Technische Chemie und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMC) RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Interests: molecular catalysis; selective conversion of biogenic platform chemicals; advanced reaction media; green chemistry
Prof. Dr. Regina Palkovits
Lehrstuhl für nanostrukturierte Katalysatoren, Institut für Technische Chemie und Makromolekulare Chemie (ITMC) RWTH Aachen University, Worringerweg 1, 52074 Aachen, Germany
Initially, the term ‘Biopolymers’ was used in the last decades to describe bio-degradable polymers mainly derived from fossil resources. In recent years, the meaning of this term shifted to describe biogenic polymers, i.e. materials derived by chemical and biochemical processes from biomass as a renewable resource. This field has grown extraordinarily fast in the last decade, powered by the increasing economic and ecologic evidence for the limitation of fossil resources and the corresponding search for alternative carbon resources. Therefore, creating a scientific and technical basis for a new era of sustainable chemical production and consumers’ behavior beyond the oil age becomes indispensable.
Among the various strategies to obtain polymer building blocks from biomass, the exploration of a pool of novel platform chemicals is particularly attractive. It allows at least in principle to re-design new value chains starting from the desired product properties. The individual transformation steps need to be opened up by means of novel homogeneous, heterogeneous as well as enzyme catalyzed processes and advanced technologies. A great potential for sustainable production processes and products is provided by lignocellulose as one of the most important raw material since waste streams can be utilized and no direct competition to the food chain occurs. Monomers derived thereof can be applied in the production of conventional polymers or used as co-monomers resulting in improved properties. A largely unexplored potential for future polymer production is provided by novel platform chemicals that were not considered as monomers before and their respective novel polymeric compounds.
For a successful future development of this important field that will affect all of our daily lives sooner or later, the cooperation and exchange of knowledge of scientists from various fields such as catalysis, chemical engineering, polymeric chemistry, materials science and many more is mandatory. This special issue “Polymers from Biomass” is intended to contribute to this development by compiling reviews, full papers, and communications from leading experts in academia and industry.
Prof. Dr. Walter Leitner
Prof. Dr. Regina Palkovits
Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.
Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.
Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 500 CHF (Swiss Francs). English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.
- biopolymers and biogenic building blocks
- monomers from biomass
- renewable resources
- catalytic conversion
- platform chemicals
Article: Esterification of Condensed Tannins and Their Impact on the Properties of Poly(Lactic Acid)
Polymers 2013, 5(2), 344-360; doi:10.3390/polym5020344
Received: 25 February 2013; in revised form: 6 March 2013 / Accepted: 11 April 2013 / Published: 19 April 2013| Download PDF Full-text (434 KB) | Download XML Full-text
The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Renewable Polymers from Lignocellulosic Biomass: State of the Art
Authors: Elena Ten and Wilfred Vermerris
Affiliation: Department of Microbiology & Cell Science and UF Genetics Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-3610, USA; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Since the realization that global sustainability depends on renewable sources of materials and energy, there has been an ever-increasing need to develop bio-based polymers that are able to replace petroleum-based polymers. Research in this field has shown strong potential in generating high-performance functionalized polymers from plant biomass. With the anticipated large-scale production of lignocellulosic biomass, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulosic polysaccharides will be abundantly available renewable feedstocks for biopolymers and biocomposites with physico-chemical properties that match or exceed those of petroleum-based compounds. This review will describe advances and challenges in synthesis, processing and application of biobased polymers.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Levulinic Acid as a Platform Chemical for Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production
Authors: Nuttapol Tanadchangsaeng and Jian Yu
Affiliation: Hawai'i Natural Energy Institute, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, 1680 East West Road, POST 109, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA; E-Mail: email@example.com
Abstract: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) derived from renewable biomass could be a sustainable alternative to the petrochemical plastics. Levulinic acid (LA) is a promising platform chemical that can be derived from carbohydrates, starch, and cellulosic biomass, and serves as an inexpensive substrate for PHA formation via microbial biosynthesis. This review highlights a new technology for biomass refining to make bioplastics with desired physico-chemical properties. It covers the recent progress in feedstock pretreatment, substrate preparation, microbial synthesis, downstream processing and economic analysis of PHA bioplastic production from LA.
Type of Paper: Review
Title: Esterification Rates of Condensed Tannins and Their Impact on UV Stability and Compatibility of Plastics
Author: Warren Grigsby
Affiliation: Scion, 49 Sala Street, Private Bag 3020, Rotorua 3010, New Zealand; E-Mail: Warren.Grigsby@scionresearch.com
Abstract: Condensed tannins are a class of polyphenolic compounds readily extracted from the heart wood and bark of trees. Inherently hydrophilic, condensed tannins can be modified by esterification to improve their hydrophobicity, stability and compatibility within plastics.
Various chemical routes to partially- or fully-esterified tannin phenolic hydroxyl groups are compared using differing ester chain lengths (C2-C18). Routes compared include acid chlorides, anhydrides and transesterification. Chemical, thermal and UV inhibition properties of resulting tannin esters are characterised with respect to ester chain length. Dispersal, compatibility and plastic properties are explored investigating the impact of tannin ester chain length on thermal and UV stability of functionalised plastics. Plastics evaluated include polypropylene, polyethylene and poly(lactic acid).
Type of Paper: Article
Title: Improved Dispersion of Cellulose Microcrystals in Polylactic acid (PLA) based Composites Applying Surface Acetylation
Author: Tapasi Mukherjee
Affiliation: School of Civil Environmental and Chemical Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476, Melbourne, VIC, 3001, Australia, E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Design of sustainable bioplastics can be achieved by preparing composites from renewable materials like microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) fibre and biopolymer such as Polylactic acid (PLA). Like any other composites, the key driving factor that affects their performance is the quality of dispersion of MCC and the interfacial interaction between the matrix and the reinforcement phase. In this study, surface modification, one way to facilitate improved dispersion, is carried out by esterification reaction using acetyl chloride. Confirmation of acetylated group is accompanied by FTIR and 13 C Solid State NMR study. Change in crystalline property and thermal behaviour is observed by XRD study. Improvement in storage modulus (G’) is reflected in shear rheological tests. This improvement is primarily attributed to a more homogeneous dispersion and strong interfacial adhesion between the filler and the matrix. This study is aimed to emphasize that acetylated MCC strongly improve the storage modulus of the PLA based composites by enhancing better dispersion.
Last update: 29 August 2012