Special Issue "All Optical Networks for Communications"

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A special issue of Photonics (ISSN 2304-6732).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2013)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Antonella Bogoni (Website)

Photonic Network National Laboratory, Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Telecomunicazioni (CNIT), Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy
Interests: all-optical signal processing; ultra-fast optical networks; ultra-short optical pulse generation; microwave photonics; photonic-based radar systems; advanced modulation formats; optical packet switching; digital photonics; photonic ADCs; THz generation for cultural heritage; multi-protocol software defined radio TLC wireless systems
Guest Editor
Dr. Marilet De Andrade

Department of Electronics and Information, Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/5, Milan 20133, Italy
Interests: optical network communications; optical access networks; Passive Optical Networks (PON), WDM PON, TDM/WDM PON; long reach PON; dynamic bandwidth allocation in PON; energy efficiency in optical networks; optical/wireless network convergence; capacity upgrade and evolution of optical networks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This special issue of Optics journal will focus on new research results and practical solutions in the field of Optical Networks for Communications. As the Internet traffic and bandwidth demand continue to increase in the last decade, the optical technology devoted to expand the communication networks is expected to expand to meet the new capacity, reach, and networking challenges. Many aspects need to be explored such as scalability, flexibility, resiliency, quality of service, security, energy efficiency, cost-effectiveness, inter-operability and/or support of other network types.

This special issue of the Optics journal covers a large scope of research in optical networking and communications, and solicits contributions in, but not limited to:

  • Optical transport networks
  • Protection and restoration in optical networks
  • Design and performance evaluation of Optical network architectures
  • Optical switching, devices and architectures
  • Data center networks
  • Optical Access Networks, FTTx
  • Optical and Mobile Convergence
  • Free-space optical communication
  • Optical Packet, Burst, and Flow Switching
  • Failure monitoring and localization
  • Protection and restoration in optical networks
  • Elastic optical networks
  • Optical network security
  • Energy-efficient optical networks and systems
  • Support to grid and cloud computing
  • Radio over fiber
  • Convergence of optical and wireless networks

Dr. Antonella Bogoni
Dr. Marilet De Andrade
Guest Editors

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Photonics is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. For the first couple of issues the Article Processing Charge (APC) will be waived for well-prepared manuscripts. English correction and/or formatting fees of 250 CHF (Swiss Francs) will be charged in certain cases for those articles accepted for publication that require extensive additional formatting and/or English corrections.

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Energy-Saving Mechanism in WDM/TDM-PON Based on Upstream Network Traffic
Photonics 2014, 1(3), 235-250; doi:10.3390/photonics1030235
Received: 21 July 2014 / Accepted: 5 August 2014 / Published: 12 August 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
One of the main challenges of Passive Optical Networks (PONs) is the resource (bandwidth and wavelength) management. Since it has been shown that access networks consume a significant part of the overall energy of the telecom networks, the resource management schemes should [...] Read more.
One of the main challenges of Passive Optical Networks (PONs) is the resource (bandwidth and wavelength) management. Since it has been shown that access networks consume a significant part of the overall energy of the telecom networks, the resource management schemes should also consider energy minimization strategies. To sustain the increased bandwidth demand of emerging applications in the access section of the network, it is expected that next generation optical access networks will adopt the wavelength division/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) technique to increase PONs capacity. Compared with traditional PONs, the architecture of a WDM/TDM-PON requires more transceivers/receivers, hence they are expected to consume more energy. In this paper, we focus on the energy minimization in WDM/TDM-PONs and we propose an energy-efficient Dynamic Bandwidth and Wavelength Allocation mechanism whose objective is to turn off, whenever possible, the unnecessary upstream traffic receivers at the Optical Line Terminal (OLT). We evaluate our mechanism in different scenarios and show that the proper use of upstream channels leads to relevant energy savings. Our proposed energy-saving mechanism is able to save energy at the OLT while maintaining the introduced penalties in terms of packet delay and cycle time within an acceptable range. We might highlight the benefits of our proposal as a mechanism that maximizes the channel utilization. Detailed implementation of the proposed algorithm is presented, and simulation results are reported to quantify energy savings and effects on network performance on different network scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue All Optical Networks for Communications)
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Open AccessArticle Polarization-Independent All-Optical Regenerator for DPSK Data
Photonics 2014, 1(2), 154-161; doi:10.3390/photonics1020154
Received: 30 January 2014 / Revised: 4 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 May 2014 / Published: 27 May 2014
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Abstract
We demonstrate polarization-independent simultaneous all-optical phase-preserving amplitude regeneration and wavelength conversion of NRZ differential phase shift keying (DPSK) data by four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The dependence upon polarization state of the signals is eliminated by using a [...] Read more.
We demonstrate polarization-independent simultaneous all-optical phase-preserving amplitude regeneration and wavelength conversion of NRZ differential phase shift keying (DPSK) data by four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). The dependence upon polarization state of the signals is eliminated by using a co-polarized dual-pump architecture. Investigation on the regenerative capability vs. pumps detuning shows significant BER threshold margin improvement over 6 nm conversion range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue All Optical Networks for Communications)
Open AccessArticle Photonic-Based RF Transceiver for UWB Multi-Carrier Wireless Systems
Photonics 2014, 1(2), 146-153; doi:10.3390/photonics1020146
Received: 31 January 2014 / Revised: 7 May 2014 / Accepted: 9 May 2014 / Published: 22 May 2014
PDF Full-text (387 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper an all-optical system exploitable as the core structure for a photonic-based RF transceiver is presented. The proposed scheme is able to simultaneously perform either up- or down-conversion of multiple frequency Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) RF signals, employing a single Mode-Locking [...] Read more.
In this paper an all-optical system exploitable as the core structure for a photonic-based RF transceiver is presented. The proposed scheme is able to simultaneously perform either up- or down-conversion of multiple frequency Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) RF signals, employing a single Mode-Locking Laser (MLL). The system has been experimentally demonstrated and tested by up- and down-converting orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals over a bandwidth of about 4 GHz. The scheme’s performance has been validated by measuring the error vector magnitude (EVM) of the OFDM signals over the whole considered RF spectrum (from 5 GHz to 26.5 GHz), both in up-conversion and in down-conversion. The measurements show negligible power penalties, lower than 0.5 dB. Since the proposed scheme can act either as an up- or down-converter, and it is composed by easily integratable devices, two identical structures can be combined on a single integrated platform, sharing a single MLL, to build a compact and efficient UWB transceiver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue All Optical Networks for Communications)
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Open AccessArticle Optical Backplane Based on Ring-Resonators: Scalability and Performance Analysis for 10 Gb/s OOK-NRZ
Photonics 2014, 1(2), 131-145; doi:10.3390/photonics1020131
Received: 25 March 2014 / Revised: 15 April 2014 / Accepted: 18 April 2014 / Published: 12 May 2014
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Abstract
The use of architectures that implement optical switching without any need of optoelectronic conversion allows us to overcome the limits imposed by today’s electronic backplane, such as power consumption and dissipation, as well as power supply and footprint requirements. We propose a [...] Read more.
The use of architectures that implement optical switching without any need of optoelectronic conversion allows us to overcome the limits imposed by today’s electronic backplane, such as power consumption and dissipation, as well as power supply and footprint requirements. We propose a ring-resonator based optical backplane for router line-card interconnection. In particular we investigate how the scalability of the architecture is affected by the following parameters: number of line cards, switching-element round-trip losses, frequency drifting due to thermal variations, and waveguide-crossing effects. Moreover, to quantify the signal distortions introduced by filtering operations, the bit error rate for the different parameter conditions are shown in case of an on-off keying non-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) input signal at 10 Gb/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue All Optical Networks for Communications)
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Open AccessArticle Optical Systems for Ultra-High-Speed TDM Networking
Photonics 2014, 1(2), 83-94; doi:10.3390/photonics1020083
Received: 13 February 2014 / Revised: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 25 April 2014
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Abstract
This paper discusses key results in the field of high speed optical networking with particular focus on packet-based systems. Schemes for optical packet labeling, packet switching and packet synchronization will be discussed, along with schemes for optical clock recovery, channel identification and [...] Read more.
This paper discusses key results in the field of high speed optical networking with particular focus on packet-based systems. Schemes for optical packet labeling, packet switching and packet synchronization will be discussed, along with schemes for optical clock recovery, channel identification and detection of ultra-high-speed optical signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue All Optical Networks for Communications)
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Open AccessArticle The Escape of Sisyphus or What “Post NG-PON2” Should Do Apart from Neverending Capacity Upgrades
Photonics 2014, 1(1), 47-66; doi:10.3390/photonics1010047
Received: 20 December 2013 / Revised: 7 February 2014 / Accepted: 10 February 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (903 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The primary design goal of (r)evolutionary NG-PON1&2 was the provisioning of an ever increasing capacity to cope with video-dominated traffic and handle the explosion of mobile data traffic by means of offloading. Recently, however, questions on the future of “post NG-PON2” have [...] Read more.
The primary design goal of (r)evolutionary NG-PON1&2 was the provisioning of an ever increasing capacity to cope with video-dominated traffic and handle the explosion of mobile data traffic by means of offloading. Recently, however, questions on the future of “post NG-PON2” have surfaced whether to shift its research focus to business and operation related aspects and move access technology into a substantially different direction than continued capacity upgrades. In fact, recent studies indicate that ultimately the major factor limiting the performance of 4G mobile networks is latency rather than capacity of the backhaul. In this paper, we review recently proposed low-latency techniques for NG-PONs that require architectural modifications at the remote node or distribution fiber level and highlight advanced network coding and real-time polling based low-latency techniques that can be implemented in software, enable NG-PONs to carry higher traffic loads and thereby extend their lifetime, and maintain the passive nature of existent optical distribution networks. Furthermore, we elaborate on emerging trends and open challenges for future post NG-PON2 research. To better understand their true potential, we put them into a wider non-technical and historical perspective leading up to a sustainable Third Industrial Revolution (TIR) economy and its underlying Energy Internet. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue All Optical Networks for Communications)
Open AccessArticle Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) Enhancement Comparison of Impulse-, Coding- and Novel Linear-Frequency-Chirp-Based Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) for Passive Optical Network (PON) Monitoring Based on Unique Combinations of Wavelength Selective Mirrors
Photonics 2014, 1(1), 33-46; doi:10.3390/photonics1010033
Received: 28 November 2013 / Revised: 13 January 2014 / Accepted: 16 January 2014 / Published: 20 March 2014
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Abstract
We compare optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) techniques based on conventional single impulse, coding and linear frequency chirps concerning their signal to noise ratio (SNR) enhancements by measurements in a passive optical network (PON) with a maximum one-way attenuation of 36.6 dB. [...] Read more.
We compare optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) techniques based on conventional single impulse, coding and linear frequency chirps concerning their signal to noise ratio (SNR) enhancements by measurements in a passive optical network (PON) with a maximum one-way attenuation of 36.6 dB. A total of six subscribers, each represented by a unique mirror pair with narrow reflection bandwidths, are installed within a distance of 14 m. The spatial resolution of the OTDR set-up is 3.0 m. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue All Optical Networks for Communications)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Self-Homodyne Detection in Optical Communication Systems
Photonics 2014, 1(2), 110-130; doi:10.3390/photonics1020110
Received: 2 March 2014 / Revised: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 2 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We review work on self-homodyne detection (SHD) for optical communication systems. SHD uses a transmitted pilot-tone (PT), originating from the transmitter laser, to exploit phase noise cancellation at a coherent receiver and to enable transmitter linewidth tolerance and potential energy savings. We [...] Read more.
We review work on self-homodyne detection (SHD) for optical communication systems. SHD uses a transmitted pilot-tone (PT), originating from the transmitter laser, to exploit phase noise cancellation at a coherent receiver and to enable transmitter linewidth tolerance and potential energy savings. We give an overview of SHD performance, outlining the key contributors to the optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty compared to equivalent intradyne systems, and summarize the advantages, differences and similarities between schemes using polarization-division multiplexed PTs (PDM-SHD) and those using space-division multiplexed PTs (SDM-SHD). For PDM-SHD, we review the extensive work on the transmission of advanced modulation formats and techniques to minimize the trade-off with spectral efficiency, as well as recent work on digital SHD, where the SHD receiver is combined with an polarization-diversity ID front-end receiver to provide both polarization and modulation format alignment. We then focus on SDM-SHD systems, describing experimental results using multi-core fibers (MCFs) with up to 19 cores, including high capacity transmission with broad-linewidth lasers and experiments incorporating SDM-SHD in networking. Additionally, we discuss the requirement for polarization tracking of the PTs at the receiver and path length alignment and review some variants of SHD before outlining the future challenges of self-homodyne optical transmission and gaps in current knowledge. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue All Optical Networks for Communications)
Open AccessReview Transport Schemes for Fiber-Wireless Technology: Transmission Performance and Energy Efficiency
Photonics 2014, 1(2), 67-82; doi:10.3390/photonics1020067
Received: 23 December 2013 / Revised: 21 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 16 April 2014
PDF Full-text (798 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fiber-wireless technology has been actively researched as a potential candidate for next generation broadband wireless signal distribution. Despite the popularity, this hybrid scheme has many technical challenges that impede the uptake and commercial deployment. One of the inherent issues is the transport [...] Read more.
Fiber-wireless technology has been actively researched as a potential candidate for next generation broadband wireless signal distribution. Despite the popularity, this hybrid scheme has many technical challenges that impede the uptake and commercial deployment. One of the inherent issues is the transport of the wireless signals over a predominantly digital optical network in today’s telecommunication infrastructure. Many different approaches have been introduced and demonstrated with digitized RF transport of the wireless signals being the most compatible with the existing optical fiber networks. In this paper, we review our work in the area of digitized RF transport to address the inherent issues related to analog transport in the fiber-wireless links and compare the transmission performance and energy efficiency with the other transport strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue All Optical Networks for Communications)

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