Special Issue "Molecular Imaging"

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A special issue of Pharmaceutics (ISSN 1999-4923).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2010)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Gus R. Rosania (Website)

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, 428 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA
Fax: +1 734 615 6162
Interests: drug transport; cellular pharmacokinetics; computational modeling; systems biology; cheminformatics; microscopic imaging

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We welcome all articles related to research, development and application of bioimaging probes for all imaging modalities, as well as image data management and analysis including image databases, image feature extraction, segmentation, classification, object tracking, kinetics, rendering data analysis, data visualization, imaging probe synthesis and screening, imaging probe optimization, cheminformatics of bioimaging probes, etc.

Dr. Gus R. Rosania
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • Bioimaging
  • Bioinformatics
  • Cheminformatics
  • Image Databases
  • Data Visualization
  • Image Analysis
  • High Content Screening
  • Machine Vision
  • Pharmaceutical Sciences
  • Theranostics
  • Drug Targeting
  • Drug Delivery
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Modeling
  • Systems Biology
  • Bioimaging Probes
  • Computer Aided Design

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle First Quantitative Imaging of Organic Fluorine within Angiogenic Tissues by Particle Induced Gamma-Ray Emission (PIGE) Analysis: First PIGE Organic Fluorine Imaging
Pharmaceutics 2011, 3(1), 88-106; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics3010088
Received: 31 December 2010 / Revised: 28 February 2011 / Accepted: 7 March 2011 / Published: 9 March 2011
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Abstract
PET (Positron Emission Tomography) allows imaging of the in vivo distribution of biochemical compounds labeled with a radioactive tracer, mainly 18F-FDG (2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose). 18F only allows a relatively poor spatial resolution (2-3 mm) which does not allow imaging of small tumors or [...] Read more.
PET (Positron Emission Tomography) allows imaging of the in vivo distribution of biochemical compounds labeled with a radioactive tracer, mainly 18F-FDG (2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluoro-D-glucose). 18F only allows a relatively poor spatial resolution (2-3 mm) which does not allow imaging of small tumors or specific small size tissues, e.g. vasculature. Unfortunately, angiogenesis is a key process in various physiologic and pathologic processes and is, for instance, involved in modern anticancer approaches. Thus ability to visualize angiogenesis could allow early diagnosis and help to monitor the response of cancer to specific chemotherapies. Therefore, indirect analytical techniques are required to assess the localization of fluorinated compounds at a micrometric scale. Multimodality imaging approaches could provide accurate information on the metabolic activity of the target tissue. In this article, PIGE method (Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission) was used to determine fluorinated tracers by the nuclear reaction of 19F(p,p′γ)19F in tissues. The feasibility of this approach was assessed on polyfluorinated model glucose compounds and novel peptide-based tracer designed for angiogenesis imaging. Our results describe the first mapping of the biodistribution of fluorinated compounds in both vascularized normal tissue and tumor tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imaging)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Advances in Bio-Optical Imaging for the Diagnosis of Early Oral Cancer
Pharmaceutics 2011, 3(3), 354-378; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics3030354
Received: 4 May 2011 / Accepted: 27 June 2011 / Published: 11 July 2011
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (882 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact [...] Read more.
Oral cancer is among the most common malignancies worldwide, therefore early detection and treatment is imperative. The 5-year survival rate has remained at a dismal 50% for the past several decades. The main reason for the poor survival rate is the fact that most of the oral cancers, despite the general accessibility of the oral cavity, are not diagnosed until the advanced stage. Early detection of the oral tumors and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve clinical outcome and cure most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of non-invasive in vivo tissue imaging to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. This review will discuss the use of optical probes and highlight the role of optical imaging such as autofluorescence, fluorescence diagnosis (FD), laser confocal endomicroscopy (LCE), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) in early oral cancer detection. FD is a promising method to differentiate cancerous lesions from benign, thus helping in the determination of adequate resolution of surgical resection margin. LCE offers in vivo cellular imaging of tissue structures from surface to subsurface layers and has demonstrated the potential to be used as a minimally invasive optical biopsy technique for early diagnosis of oral cancer lesions. SERS was able to differentiate between normal and oral cancer patients based on the spectra acquired from saliva of patients. OCT has been used to visualize the detailed histological features of the oral lesions with an imaging depth down to 2–3 mm. CRM is an optical tool to noninvasively image tissue with near histological resolution. These comprehensive diagnostic modalities can also be used to define surgical margin and to provide a direct assessment of the therapeutic effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imaging)
Open AccessReview Fluorescence Molecular Tomography: Principles and Potential for Pharmaceutical Research
Pharmaceutics 2011, 3(2), 229-274; doi:10.3390/pharmaceutics3020229
Received: 6 February 2011 / Revised: 7 April 2011 / Accepted: 15 April 2011 / Published: 26 April 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (5913 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Fluorescence microscopic imaging is widely used in biomedical research to study molecular and cellular processes in cell culture or tissue samples. This is motivated by the high inherent sensitivity of fluorescence techniques, the spatial resolution that compares favorably with cellular dimensions, the [...] Read more.
Fluorescence microscopic imaging is widely used in biomedical research to study molecular and cellular processes in cell culture or tissue samples. This is motivated by the high inherent sensitivity of fluorescence techniques, the spatial resolution that compares favorably with cellular dimensions, the stability of the fluorescent labels used and the sophisticated labeling strategies that have been developed for selectively labeling target molecules. More recently, two and three-dimensional optical imaging methods have also been applied to monitor biological processes in intact biological organisms such as animals or even humans. These whole body optical imaging approaches have to cope with the fact that biological tissue is a highly scattering and absorbing medium. As a consequence, light propagation in tissue is well described by a diffusion approximation and accurate reconstruction of spatial information is demanding. While in vivo optical imaging is a highly sensitive method, the signal is strongly surface weighted, i.e., the signal detected from the same light source will become weaker the deeper it is embedded in tissue, and strongly depends on the optical properties of the surrounding tissue. Derivation of quantitative information, therefore, requires tomographic techniques such as fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT), which maps the three-dimensional distribution of a fluorescent probe or protein concentration. The combination of FMT with a structural imaging method such as X-ray computed tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) will allow mapping molecular information on a high definition anatomical reference and enable the use of prior information on tissue’s optical properties to enhance both resolution and sensitivity. Today many of the fluorescent assays originally developed for studies in cellular systems have been successfully translated for experimental studies in animals. The opportunity of monitoring molecular processes non-invasively in the intact organism is highly attractive from a diagnostic point of view but even more so for the drug developer, who can use the techniques for proof-of-mechanism and proof-of-efficacy studies. This review shall elucidate the current status and potential of fluorescence tomography including recent advances in multimodality imaging approaches for preclinical and clinical drug development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Imaging)

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