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Special Issue "Anaesthetics"

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A special issue of Pharmaceuticals (ISSN 1424-8247).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2015)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jaideep Pandit

Nuffield Department of Anaesthetics, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford. UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: respiratory physiology; anaesthesia and critical care; health economics and operating room management and mechanisms of anesthetic drug action
Guest Editor
Dr. Peadar O'Donohoe

Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The journal “Pharmaceuticals” is planning to publish a special issue covering the topic “Anaesthetics” and I am cordially inviting you to contribute an article to this volume.

Anaesthesia encompasses a very wide range of topics related to preoperative and operative care, cardiorespiratory medicine and physiology, as well as cellular and molecular mechanisms. It also now extends to organisational aspects of theatres, staffing and hospitals. We welcome articles in all of these fields for this special issue

Prof. Dr. Jaideep Pandit
Dr. Peadar O'Donohoe
Guest Editor

Submission

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. Papers will be published continuously (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are refereed through a peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmaceuticals is an international peer-reviewed Open Access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 800 CHF (Swiss Francs).


Keywords

  • anaesthesia
  • pain
  • local anaesthetics
  • physiology
  • pharmacology

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Does Amifostine Reduce Metabolic Rate? Effect of the Drug on Gas Exchange and Acute Ventilatory Hypoxic Response in Humans
Pharmaceuticals 2015, 8(2), 186-195; doi:10.3390/ph8020186
Received: 19 November 2014 / Revised: 26 March 2015 / Accepted: 10 April 2015 / Published: 16 April 2015
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (346 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Amifostine is added to chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of many cancers on the basis that, by reducing the metabolic rate, it protects normal cells from toxic effects of therapy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic rate (by gas exchange) over
[...] Read more.
Amifostine is added to chemoradiation regimens in the treatment of many cancers on the basis that, by reducing the metabolic rate, it protects normal cells from toxic effects of therapy. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the metabolic rate (by gas exchange) over 255 min in 6 healthy subjects, at two doses (500 mg and 1000 mg) of amifostine infused over 15 min at the start of the protocol. We also assessed the ventilatory response to six 1 min exposures to isocapnic hypoxia mid-protocol. There was no change in metabolic rate with amifostine as measured by oxygen uptake (p = 0.113). However in carbon dioxide output and respiratory quotient, we detected a small decline over time in control and drug protocols, consistent with a gradual change from carbohydrate to fat metabolism over the course of the relatively long study protocol. A novel result was that amifostine (1000 mg) increased the mean ± SD acute hypoxic ventilatory response from 12.4 ± 5.1 L/min to 20.3 ± 11.9 L/min (p = 0.045). In conclusion, any cellular protective effects of amifostine are unlikely due to metabolic effects. The stimulatory effect on hypoxic ventilatory responses may be due to increased levels of hypoxia inducible factor, either peripherally in the carotid body, or centrally in the brain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthetics)
Open AccessArticle Etomidate and Ketamine: Residual Motor and Adrenal Dysfunction that Persist beyond Recovery from Loss of Righting Reflex in Rats
Pharmaceuticals 2015, 8(1), 21-37; doi:10.3390/ph8010021
Received: 20 September 2014 / Accepted: 16 December 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (957 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We tested the hypothesis that etomidate and ketamine produce residual effects that modify functional mobility (measured by the balance beam test) and adrenal function (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation) immediately following recovery from loss of righting reflex in rats. Intravenous etomidate or ketamine was
[...] Read more.
We tested the hypothesis that etomidate and ketamine produce residual effects that modify functional mobility (measured by the balance beam test) and adrenal function (adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation) immediately following recovery from loss of righting reflex in rats. Intravenous etomidate or ketamine was administered in a randomized, crossover fashion (2 or 4 mg/kg and 20 or 40 mg/kg, respectively) on eight consecutive days. Following recovery of righting reflex, animals were assessed for residual effects on functional mobility on the balance beam, motor behavior in the open field and adrenal function through ACTH stimulation. We evaluated the consequences of the effects of the anesthetic agent-induced motor behavior on functional mobility. On the balance beam, etomidate-treated rats maintained their grip longer than ketamine-treated rats, indicating greater balance abilities (mean ± SD, 21.5 ± 25.1 s vs. 3.0 ± 4.3 s respectively, p < 0.021). In the open field test, both dosages of etomidate and ketamine had opposite effects on travel behavior, showing ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion and etomidate-induced hypolocomotion. There was a significant interaction between anesthetic agent and motor behavior effects for functional mobility effects (p < 0.001). Corticosterone levels were lower after both 40 mg/kg ketamine and 4 mg/kg etomidate anesthesia compared to placebo, an effect stronger with etomidate than ketamine (p < 0.001). Following recovery from anesthesia, etomidate and ketamine have substantial side effects. Ketamine-induced hyperlocomotion with 20 and 40 mg/kg has stronger effects on functional mobility than etomidate-induced hypolocomotion with 2 and 4 mg/kg. Etomidate (4 mg/kg) has stronger adrenal suppression effects than ketamine (40 mg/kg). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthetics)

Review

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Open AccessReview Pain Management in Ambulatory Surgery—A Review
Pharmaceuticals 2014, 7(8), 850-865; doi:10.3390/ph7080850
Received: 18 April 2014 / Revised: 27 June 2014 / Accepted: 9 July 2014 / Published: 24 July 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Day surgery, coming to and leaving the hospital on the same day as surgery as well as ambulatory surgery, leaving hospital within twenty-three hours is increasingly being adopted. There are several potential benefits associated with the avoidance of in-hospital care. Early discharge demands
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Day surgery, coming to and leaving the hospital on the same day as surgery as well as ambulatory surgery, leaving hospital within twenty-three hours is increasingly being adopted. There are several potential benefits associated with the avoidance of in-hospital care. Early discharge demands a rapid recovery and low incidence and intensity of surgery and anaesthesia related side-effects; such as pain, nausea and fatigue. Patients must be fit enough and symptom intensity so low that self-care is feasible in order to secure quality of care. Preventive multi-modal analgesia has become the gold standard. Administering paracetamol, NSIADs prior to start of surgery and decreasing the noxious influx by the use of local anaesthetics by peripheral block or infiltration in surgical field prior to incision and at wound closure in combination with intra-operative fast acting opioid analgesics, e.g., remifentanil, have become standard of care. Single preoperative 0.1 mg/kg dose dexamethasone has a combined action, anti-emetic and provides enhanced analgesia. Additional α-2-agonists and/or gabapentin or pregabalin may be used in addition to facilitate the pain management if patients are at risk for more pronounced pain. Paracetamol, NSAIDs and rescue oral opioid is the basic concept for self-care during the first 3–5 days after common day/ambulatory surgical procedures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anaesthetics)

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