Special Issue "Nanosafety 2017"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (7 March 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Eduard Arzt

INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials Research
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Interests: fundamentals of powder metallurgy; mechanical size effects in small-scale metals; bioinspired surfaces and materials concepts; intelligent adhesives and robotic grippers; nano bio interaction
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Heinz Fehrenbach

Forschungszentrum Borstel - LZentrum für Medizinund Biowissenschafteneibniz-
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Interests: nanotoxicology; nanoparticle–cell interaction; pulmonary effects; airway epithelium; chronic airway diseases
Guest Editor
Dr. Annette Kraegeloh

INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials
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Interests: nano cell interactions; cellular nanoparticle localization; biologically-relevant properties of nano-objects
Guest Editor
Dr. Klaus Unfried

IUF - Leibniz Research Institute for Environmental Medicine
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Interests: particle toxicology; cellular signaling; prediction of nanomaterial induced effects
Guest Editor
Dr. Christoph van Thriel

IfADo - Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors Dortmund
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Phone: +49 0231 1084 407
Interests: neurotoxicity of nanoparticles; occupational exposures to nanomaterial; regulation of exposures to nanoparticles in the working environment; in vitro neurotoxicity testing; exposure of welders to metal nanoparticles (e.g., manganese, aluminum)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanotechnologies are considered as key enabling technologies. Their applications are based on effects arising from the promising properties and structures of the building blocks of nanomaterials. Sustainable development and implementation of these technologies demand safe production and usage of nanomaterials, based on a detailed understanding of interactions between nano-objects and living organisms, and a transfer of scientific knowledge to address socially-relevant aspects.

“Nanosafety” is a truly interdisciplinary science. It combines a broad variety of disciplines, and spans from basic research to marketing of novel products. Furthermore, it ranges from the development of regulatory frameworks for nanomaterials to comprehensible public information regarding the impact on human health and environment. In order to determine the long-term effects potentially-induced by nanomaterials, current research focuses on tissue-specific responses to nanomaterials, on molecular mechanisms and structural information of nano–cell interactions. In addition, novel testing strategies are needed to enable sensitive, rapid, and comprehensive prediction of potential nanomaterial effects based on cell or tissue models. One available aim of nanosafety research is to integrate current knowledge on material properties, biological mechanisms, and exposure scenarios in order to design intrinsicallyisafe nanomaterials.

Current developments in the field will be discussed at the Nanosafety 2017 conference, held in Saarbrücken, Germany, from 11–13 October, 2017.

Nanosafety 2017 is organized by the Leibniz Research Alliance Nanosafety, established and supported by the Leibniz Association. The alliance deals with safety issues concerning nanomaterials and nanoproducts. Their central aims are to understand nanoparticle-induced effects, to develop safe nanomaterials and to explain nano-related topics.

Prof. Dr. Eduard Arzt
Prof. Dr. Heinz Fehrenbach
Dr. Annette Kraegeloh
Dr. Klaus Unfried
Dr. Christoph van Thriel
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanosafety
  • safe nanomaterial design
  • neurotoxicity of nanomaterials
  • biological effects of nanomaterials
  • safe applications of nanomaterials
  • quantification and detection of nanoobjects
  • environmental effects of nanomaterials
  • release and exposure pathways
  • long term effects of nanomaterials

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Open AccessArticle Non-Canonical Activation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor by Carbon Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040267
Received: 25 February 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an abundant membrane protein, which is essential for regulating many cellular processes including cell proliferation. In our earlier studies, we observed an activation of the EGFR and subsequent signaling events after the exposure of epithelial cells
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The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is an abundant membrane protein, which is essential for regulating many cellular processes including cell proliferation. In our earlier studies, we observed an activation of the EGFR and subsequent signaling events after the exposure of epithelial cells to carbon nanoparticles. In the current study, we describe molecular mechanisms that allow for discriminating carbon nanoparticle-specific from ligand-dependent receptor activation. Caveolin-1 is a key player that co-localizes with the EGFR upon receptor activation by carbon nanoparticles. This specific process mediated by nanoparticle-induced reactive oxygen species and the accumulation of ceramides in the plasma membrane is not triggered when cells are exposed to non-nano carbon particles or the physiological ligand EGF. The role of caveolae formation was demonstrated by the induction of higher order structures of caveolin-1 and by the inhibition of caveolae formation. Using an in vivo model with genetically modified mice lacking caveolin-1, it was possible to demonstrate that carbon nanoparticles in vivo trigger EGFR downstream signaling cascades via caveolin-1. The identified molecular mechanisms are, therefore, of toxicological relevance for inhaled nanoparticles. However, nanoparticles that are intentionally applied to humans might cause side effects depending on this phenomenon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosafety 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Low Dose Carbon Black Nanoparticle Exposure Does Not Aggravate Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice Irrespective of the Presence of Surface Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040213
Received: 18 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 31 March 2018
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Abstract
Exposure to exogenous noxae, such as particulate matter, can trigger acute aggravations of allergic asthma—a chronic inflammatory airway disease. We tested whether Carbon Black nanoparticles (CBNP) with or without surface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) aggravate an established allergic airway inflammation in mice. In
[...] Read more.
Exposure to exogenous noxae, such as particulate matter, can trigger acute aggravations of allergic asthma—a chronic inflammatory airway disease. We tested whether Carbon Black nanoparticles (CBNP) with or without surface polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) aggravate an established allergic airway inflammation in mice. In an ovalbumin mouse model, Printex®90 (P90), P90 coated with benzo[a]pyrene (P90-BaP) or 9-nitroanthracene (P90-9NA), or acetylene soot exhibiting a mixture of surface PAH (AS-PAH) was administered twice (70 µL, 100 µg/mL) during an established allergic airway inflammation. We analyzed the immune cell numbers and chemokine/cytokine profiles in bronchoalveolar lavages, the mRNA expressions of markers for PAH metabolism (Cyp1a1, 1b1), oxidative stress (HO-1, Gr, Gpx-3), inflammation (KC, Mcp-1, IL-6, IL-13, IL-17a), mucin synthesis (Muc5ac, Muc5b), the histology of mucus-producing goblet cells, ciliary beat frequency (CBF), and the particle transport speed. CBNP had a comparable primary particle size, hydrodynamic diameter, and ζ-potential, but differed in the specific surface area (P90 > P90-BaP = P90-9NA = AS-PAH) and surface chemistry. None of the CBNP tested increased any parameter related to inflammation. The unmodified P90, however, decreased the tracheal CBF, decreased the Muc5b in intrapulmonary airways, but increased the tracheal Muc5ac. Our results demonstrated that irrespective of the surface PAH, a low dose of CBNP does not acutely aggravate an established allergic airway inflammation in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosafety 2017)
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Open AccessArticle The DaNa2.0 Knowledge Base Nanomaterials—An Important Measure Accompanying Nanomaterials Development
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040204
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5029 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanotechnology is closely related to the tailored manufacturing of nanomaterials for a huge variety of applications. However, such applications with newly developed materials are also a reason for concern. The DaNa2.0 project provides information and support for these issues on the web
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Nanotechnology is closely related to the tailored manufacturing of nanomaterials for a huge variety of applications. However, such applications with newly developed materials are also a reason for concern. The DaNa2.0 project provides information and support for these issues on the web in condensed and easy-to-understand wording. Thus, a key challenge in the field of advanced materials safety research is access to correct and reliable studies and validated results. For nanomaterials, there is currently a continuously increasing amount of publications on toxicological issues, but criteria to evaluate the quality of these studies are necessary to use them e.g., for regulatory purposes. DaNa2.0 discusses scientific results regarding 26 nanomaterials based on actual literature that has been selected after careful evaluation following a literature criteria checklist. This checklist is publicly available, along with a selection of standardized operating protocols (SOPs) established by different projects. The spectrum of information is rounded off by further articles concerning basics or crosscutting topics in nanosafety research. This article is intended to give an overview on DaNa2.0 activities to support reliable toxicity testing and science communication alike. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosafety 2017)
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Open AccessArticle TiO2, SiO2 and ZrO2 Nanoparticles Synergistically Provoke Cellular Oxidative Damage in Freshwater Microalgae
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8020095
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 1 February 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 8 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3090 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) are the most widely used engineered nanomaterials. The individual toxicities of metal-based NPs have been plentifully studied. However, the mixture toxicity of multiple NP systems (n ≥ 3) remains much less understood. Herein, the toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO
[...] Read more.
Metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) are the most widely used engineered nanomaterials. The individual toxicities of metal-based NPs have been plentifully studied. However, the mixture toxicity of multiple NP systems (n ≥ 3) remains much less understood. Herein, the toxicity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs), silicon dioxide (SiO2) NPs and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) NPs to unicellular freshwater algae Scenedesmus obliquus was investigated individually and in binary and ternary combination. Results show that the ternary combination systems of TiO2, SiO2 and ZrO2 NPs at a mixture concentration of 1 mg/L significantly enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular reactive oxygen species level in the algae. Moreover, the ternary NP systems remarkably increased the activity of the antioxidant defense enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase, together with an increase in lipid peroxidation products and small molecule metabolites. Furthermore, the observation of superficial structures of S. obliquus revealed obvious oxidative damage induced by the ternary mixtures. Taken together, the ternary NP systems exerted more severe oxidative stress in the algae than the individual and the binary NP systems. Thus, our findings highlight the importance of the assessment of the synergistic toxicity of multi-nanomaterial systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosafety 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Prevention of Synaptic Alterations and Neurotoxic Effects of PAMAM Dendrimers by Surface Functionalization
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8010007
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 21 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 25 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2087 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
One of the most studied nanocarriers for drug delivery are polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. However, the alterations produced by PAMAM dendrimers in neuronal function have not been thoroughly investigated, and important aspects such as effects on synaptic transmission remain unexplored. We focused on the
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One of the most studied nanocarriers for drug delivery are polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. However, the alterations produced by PAMAM dendrimers in neuronal function have not been thoroughly investigated, and important aspects such as effects on synaptic transmission remain unexplored. We focused on the neuronal activity disruption induced by dendrimers and the possibility to prevent these effects by surface chemical modifications. Therefore, we studied the effects of fourth generation PAMAM with unmodified positively charged surface (G4) in hippocampal neurons, and compared the results with dendrimers functionalized in 25% of their surface groups with folate (PFO25) and polyethylene glycol (PPEG25). G4 dendrimers significantly reduced cell viability at 1 µM, which was attenuated by both chemical modifications, PPEG25 being the less cytotoxic. Patch clamp recordings demonstrated that G4 induced a 7.5-fold increment in capacitive currents as a measure of membrane permeability. Moreover, treatment with this dendrimer increased intracellular Ca2+ by 8-fold with a complete disruption of transients pattern, having as consequence that G4 treatment increased the synaptic vesicle release and frequency of synaptic events by 2.4- and 3-fold, respectively. PFO25 and PPEG25 treatments did not alter membrane permeability, total Ca2+ intake, synaptic vesicle release or synaptic activity frequency. These results demonstrate that cationic G4 dendrimers have neurotoxic effects and induce alterations in normal synaptic activity, which are generated by the augmentation of membrane permeability and a subsequent intracellular Ca2+ increase. Interestingly, these toxic effects and synaptic alterations are prevented by the modification of 25% of PAMAM surface with either folate or polyethylene glycol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosafety 2017)
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Open AccessConcept Paper Implementation of Safe-by-Design for Nanomaterial Development and Safe Innovation: Why We Need a Comprehensive Approach
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040239
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 11 April 2018 / Published: 14 April 2018
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Abstract
Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) are regarded as key components of innovations in various fields with high potential impact (e.g., energy generation and storage, electronics, photonics, diagnostics, theranostics, or drug delivery agents). Widespread use of MNMs raises concerns about their safety for humans and the
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Manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs) are regarded as key components of innovations in various fields with high potential impact (e.g., energy generation and storage, electronics, photonics, diagnostics, theranostics, or drug delivery agents). Widespread use of MNMs raises concerns about their safety for humans and the environment, possibly limiting the impact of the nanotechnology-based innovation. The development of safe MNMs and nanoproducts has to result in a safe as well as functional material or product. Its safe use, and disposal at the end of its life cycle must be taken into account too. However, not all MNMs are similarly useful for all applications, some might bear a higher hazard potential than others, and use scenarios could lead to different exposure probabilities. To improve both safety and efficacy of nanotechnology, we think that a new proactive approach is necessary, based on pre-regulatory safety assessment and dialogue between stakeholders. On the basis of the work carried out in different European Union (EU) initiatives, developing and integrating MNMs Safe-by-Design and Trusted Environments (NANoREG, ProSafe, and NanoReg2), we present our point of view here. This concept, when fully developed, will allow for cost effective industrial innovation, and an exchange of key information between regulators and innovators. Regulators are thus informed about incoming innovations in good time, supporting a proactive regulatory action. The final goal is to contribute to the nanotechnology governance, having faster, cheaper, effective, and safer nano-products on the market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanosafety 2017)
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