Special Issue "Nanostructured Biosensors 2016"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Chen-Zhong Li

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174, USA
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Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ling-Jie Meng

Department of Chemistry, School of Science, Xi'an JiaoTong University, Xi'An 710049, China
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Biosensors are chemical sensors in which the recognition system is based on biochemical or biological mechanisms. Compared to the traditional analytical methods, the advantage of biosensors is due to the facts that they are small in size, have a fast response, are easy to use, portable, and inexpensive devices that are suitable for real-time monitoring of biological parameters. Since the 1960s when Clark and Lyons proposed the initial concept of enzyme electrodes-based glucose biosensors, biosensors’ technology has , increased—and will continue to—in applications in the fields of clinical diagnostics, home land security, environmental monitoring, agriculture, food and drug industries, and point-of-care applications.

In recent years, with the development of nanotechnology, the integration of a variety of nanomaterials to biosensing technology has attracted substantial research efforts due to the special physical, chemical, electrical, optical properties of nanostructured materials. The exploration of these different characteristics has initiated the improvement of sensitivity, selectivity, and biocompatibility of biosensors.

This Special Issue aims to put together a set of original research papers and review papers representing part of the breadth and depth of current research on nanostructured biosensors, with focus on recent developments in biosensing technologies based on the utilization of nanostructured materials with specific forms such as engineered nanoparticles (0D), nanorods and nanotubes (1D), synthetic thin film and graphene (2D). The topics will include, without being limited to:

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nanomaterials;
  2. Assembly and functionalization of nanomaterials;
  3. Integration of nanomaterials in biosensing systems;
  4. Design and fabrication of nanostructured biosensors;
  5. Miniaturized electrical and optical biosensors, etc.

We are expecting that this Special Issue will provide chemists, material scientists, engineers and biomedical scientists with the current state of the art and challenges, as well as future perspectives, regarding nano-biosensing technology.

Prof. Dr. Chen-Zhong Li
Prof. Dr. Ling-Jie Meng
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • biosensors
  • nanomaterials
  • assembly
  • functionalization
  • MENS/NEMS

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle An Optical Sensor with Polyaniline-Gold Hybrid Nanostructures for Monitoring pH in Saliva
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(3), 67; doi:10.3390/nano7030067
Received: 3 August 2016 / Revised: 10 December 2016 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 17 March 2017
PDF Full-text (3409 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Saliva contains important personal physiological information that is related to some diseases, and it is a valuable source of biochemical information that can be collected rapidly, frequently, and without stress. In this article, we reported a new and simple localized surface plasmon resonance
[...] Read more.
Saliva contains important personal physiological information that is related to some diseases, and it is a valuable source of biochemical information that can be collected rapidly, frequently, and without stress. In this article, we reported a new and simple localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) substrate composed of polyaniline (PANI)-gold hybrid nanostructures as an optical sensor for monitoring the pH of saliva samples. The overall appearance and topography of the substrates, the composition, and the wettability of the LSPR surfaces were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images, infrared spectra, and contact angles measurement, respectively. The PANI-gold hybrid substrate readily responded to the pH. The response time was very short, which was 3.5 s when the pH switched from 2 to 7, and 4.5 s from 7 to 2. The changes of visible-near-infrared (NIR) spectra of this sensor upon varying pH in solution showed that—for the absorption at given wavelengths of 665 nm and 785 nm—the sensitivities were 0.0299 a.u./pH (a.u. = arbitrary unit) with a linear range of pH = 5–8 and 0.0234 a.u./pH with linear range of pH = 2–8, respectively. By using this new sensor, the pH of a real saliva sample was monitored and was consistent with the parallel measurements with a standard laboratory method. The results suggest that this novel LSPR sensor shows great potential in the field of mobile healthcare and home medical devices, and could also be modified by different sensitive materials to detect various molecules or ions in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors 2016)
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Open AccessArticle A Label-Free and Sensitive Fluorescent Qualitative Assay for Bisphenol A Based on Rolling Circle Amplification/Exonuclease III-Combined Cascade Amplification
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(10), 190; doi:10.3390/nano6100190
Received: 12 August 2016 / Revised: 8 October 2016 / Accepted: 11 October 2016 / Published: 21 October 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1704 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA) detection in drinking water and food packaging materials has attracted much attention since the discovery that BPA can interfere with normal physiological processes and cause adverse health effects. Here, we constructed a label-free aptamer fluorescent assay for selective and sensitive
[...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA) detection in drinking water and food packaging materials has attracted much attention since the discovery that BPA can interfere with normal physiological processes and cause adverse health effects. Here, we constructed a label-free aptamer fluorescent assay for selective and sensitive detection of BPA based on the rolling circle amplification (RCA)/Exonuclease III (Exo III)-combined cascade amplification strategy. First, the duplex DNA probe (RP) with anti-BPA aptamer and trigger sequence was designed for BPA recognition and signal amplification. Next, under the action of BPA, the trigger probe was liberated from RP to initiate RCA reaction as primary amplification. Subsequently, the RCA products were used to trigger Exo III assisted secondary amplification with the help of hairpin probes, producing plenty of “G-quadruplex” in lantern-like structures. Finally, the continuously enriched “G-quadruplex lanterns” were lightened by zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX) generating enhanced fluorescence signals. By integrating the primary RCA and secondary Exo III mediated cascade amplification strategy, this method displayed an excellent sensitivity with the detection limits of 5.4 × 10−17 M. In addition, the anti-BPA aptamer exhibits high recognition ability with BPA, guaranteeing the specificity of detection. The reporter signal probe (G-quadruplex with ZnPPIX) provides a label-free fluorescence signals readout without complicated labeling procedures, making the method simple in design and cost-effective in operation. Moreover, environmental samples analysis was also performed, suggesting that our strategy was reliable and had a great potential application in environmental monitoring. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Triboelectric Hydrogen Gas Sensor with Pd Functionalized Surface
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(10), 186; doi:10.3390/nano6100186
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 29 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 14 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3359 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Palladium (Pd)-based hydrogen (H2) gas sensors have been widely investigated thanks to its fast reaction and high sensitivity to hydrogen. Various sensing mechanisms have been adopted for H2 gas sensors; however, all the sensors must be powered through an external
[...] Read more.
Palladium (Pd)-based hydrogen (H2) gas sensors have been widely investigated thanks to its fast reaction and high sensitivity to hydrogen. Various sensing mechanisms have been adopted for H2 gas sensors; however, all the sensors must be powered through an external battery. We report here an H2 gas sensor that can detect H2 by measuring the output voltages generated during contact electrification between two friction surfaces. When the H2 sensor, composed of Pd-coated ITO (indium tin oxide) and PET (polyethylene Terephthalate) film, is exposed to H2, its output voltage is varied in proportion to H2 concentration because the work function (WF) of Pd-coated surface changes, altering triboelectric charging behavior. Specifically, the output voltage of the sensor is gradually increased as exposing H2 concentration increases. Reproducible and sensitive sensor response was observed up 1% H2 exposure. The approach introduced here can easily be adopted to development of triboelectric gas sensors detecting other gas species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Non-Enzymatic Glucose Biosensor Based on CuO-Decorated CeO2 Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(9), 159; doi:10.3390/nano6090159
Received: 15 July 2016 / Revised: 17 August 2016 / Accepted: 22 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Copper oxide (CuO)-decorated cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles were synthesized and used to detect glucose non-enzymatically. The morphological characteristics and structure of the nanoparticles were characterized through transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The sensor responses of electrodes to
[...] Read more.
Copper oxide (CuO)-decorated cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles were synthesized and used to detect glucose non-enzymatically. The morphological characteristics and structure of the nanoparticles were characterized through transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The sensor responses of electrodes to glucose were investigated via an electrochemical method. The CuO/CeO2 nanocomposite exhibited a reasonably good sensitivity of 2.77 μA mM−1cm−2, an estimated detection limit of 10 μA, and a good anti-interference ability. The sensor was also fairly stable under ambient conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors 2016)
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Open AccessArticle Graphene-Enabled Electrodes for Electrocardiogram Monitoring
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(9), 156; doi:10.3390/nano6090156
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 9 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4805 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The unique parameters of graphene (GN)—notably its considerable electron mobility, high surface area, and electrical conductivity—are bringing extensive attention into the wearable technologies. This work presents a novel graphene-based electrode for acquisition of electrocardiogram (ECG). The proposed electrode was fabricated by coating GN
[...] Read more.
The unique parameters of graphene (GN)—notably its considerable electron mobility, high surface area, and electrical conductivity—are bringing extensive attention into the wearable technologies. This work presents a novel graphene-based electrode for acquisition of electrocardiogram (ECG). The proposed electrode was fabricated by coating GN on top of a metallic layer of a Ag/AgCl electrode using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. To investigate the performance of the fabricated GN-based electrode, two types of electrodes were fabricated with different sizes to conduct the signal qualities and the skin-electrode contact impedance measurements. Performances of the GN-enabled electrodes were compared to the conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes in terms of ECG signal quality, skin–electrode contact impedance, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and response time. Experimental results showed the proposed GN-based electrodes produced better ECG signals, higher SNR (improved by 8%), and lower contact impedance (improved by 78%) values than conventional ECG electrodes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors 2016)
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Open AccessArticle A Nanostructured SERS Switch Based on Molecular Beacon-Controlled Assembly of Gold Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(2), 24; doi:10.3390/nano6020024
Received: 15 December 2015 / Revised: 4 January 2016 / Accepted: 5 January 2016 / Published: 22 January 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1976 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, highly purified and stable gold nanoparticle (AuNP) dimers connected at the two ends of DNA linkage were prepared by a versatile method. A nanostructured, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) switching sensor system was fabricated based on the controlled organization of gold
[...] Read more.
In this paper, highly purified and stable gold nanoparticle (AuNP) dimers connected at the two ends of DNA linkage were prepared by a versatile method. A nanostructured, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) switching sensor system was fabricated based on the controlled organization of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by a DNA nanomachine through the controlled formation/deformation of SERS “hotspots”. This strategy not only opens opportunities in the precise engineering of gap distances in gold-gold nanostructures in a highly controllable and reproducible fashion, but also provides a unique ability to research the origin of SERS and sequence-specific DNA detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors 2016)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Nano-Biosensor for Monitoring the Neural Differentiation of Stem Cells
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(12), 224; doi:10.3390/nano6120224
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 28 November 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, monitoring the status of stem cell differentiation is crucial to verify therapeutic efficacy and optimize treatment procedures. However, traditional methods, such as cell staining and sorting, are labor-intensive and may damage the cells. Therefore, the development of
[...] Read more.
In tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, monitoring the status of stem cell differentiation is crucial to verify therapeutic efficacy and optimize treatment procedures. However, traditional methods, such as cell staining and sorting, are labor-intensive and may damage the cells. Therefore, the development of noninvasive methods to monitor the differentiation status in situ is highly desirable and can be of great benefit to stem cell-based therapies. Toward this end, nanotechnology has been applied to develop highly-sensitive biosensors to noninvasively monitor the neural differentiation of stem cells. Herein, this article reviews the development of noninvasive nano-biosensor systems to monitor the neural differentiation of stem cells, mainly focusing on optical (plasmonic) and eletrochemical methods. The findings in this review suggest that novel nano-biosensors capable of monitoring stem cell differentiation are a promising type of technology that can accelerate the development of stem cell therapies, including regenerative medicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors 2016)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Design and Electrochemical Study of Platinum-Based Nanomaterials for Sensitive Detection of Nitric Oxide in Biomedical Applications
Nanomaterials 2016, 6(11), 211; doi:10.3390/nano6110211
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 4 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 14 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The extensive physiological and regulatory roles of nitric oxide (NO) have spurred the development of NO sensors, which are of critical importance in neuroscience and various medical applications. The development of electrochemical NO sensors is of significant importance, and has garnered a tremendous
[...] Read more.
The extensive physiological and regulatory roles of nitric oxide (NO) have spurred the development of NO sensors, which are of critical importance in neuroscience and various medical applications. The development of electrochemical NO sensors is of significant importance, and has garnered a tremendous amount of attention due to their high sensitivity and selectivity, rapid response, low cost, miniaturization, and the possibility of real-time monitoring. Nanostructured platinum (Pt)-based materials have attracted considerable interest regarding their use in the design of electrochemical sensors for the detection of NO, due to their unique properties and the potential for new and innovative applications. This review focuses primarily on advances and insights into the utilization of nanostructured Pt-based electrode materials, such as nanoporous Pt, Pt and PtAu nanoparticles, PtAu nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide (rGO), and PtW nanoparticle/rGO-ionic liquid (IL) nanocomposites, for the detection of NO. The design, fabrication, characterization, and integration of electrochemical NO sensing performance, selectivity, and durability are addressed. The attractive electrochemical properties of Pt-based nanomaterials have great potential for increasing the competitiveness of these new sensors and open up new opportunities in the creation of novel NO-sensing technologies for biological and medical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors 2016)
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