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Nanomaterials 2016, 6(9), 156;

Graphene-Enabled Electrodes for Electrocardiogram Monitoring

Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering, Brunel University London, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK
2-Dtech, Core Technology Facility, Incubator Building, 46 Grafton Street, Manchester M13 9NT, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Chen-Zhong Li and Ling-Jie Meng
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 9 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 August 2016 / Published: 23 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanostructured Biosensors 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4805 KB, uploaded 23 August 2016]   |  


The unique parameters of graphene (GN)—notably its considerable electron mobility, high surface area, and electrical conductivity—are bringing extensive attention into the wearable technologies. This work presents a novel graphene-based electrode for acquisition of electrocardiogram (ECG). The proposed electrode was fabricated by coating GN on top of a metallic layer of a Ag/AgCl electrode using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. To investigate the performance of the fabricated GN-based electrode, two types of electrodes were fabricated with different sizes to conduct the signal qualities and the skin-electrode contact impedance measurements. Performances of the GN-enabled electrodes were compared to the conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes in terms of ECG signal quality, skin–electrode contact impedance, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and response time. Experimental results showed the proposed GN-based electrodes produced better ECG signals, higher SNR (improved by 8%), and lower contact impedance (improved by 78%) values than conventional ECG electrodes. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; electrocardiogram (ECG); long-term monitoring; dry electrodes; contact impedance; Raman spectroscopy graphene; electrocardiogram (ECG); long-term monitoring; dry electrodes; contact impedance; Raman spectroscopy

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Celik, N.; Manivannan, N.; Strudwick, A.; Balachandran, W. Graphene-Enabled Electrodes for Electrocardiogram Monitoring. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 156.

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