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Special Issue "Orthopaedic Biomaterials"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2011)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. I. M. Ward (Website)

Polymer IRC, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
Phone: 00 44 113 343 3808
Fax: 00 44 113 343 3846
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Thomas J. Webster (Website)

Divisions of Engineering and Orthopaedics, Brown University, Box D, 224 Barus and Holley, 182 Hope Street, Providence, RI 02912, USA
Phone: 401-863-2318

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Calcium Sulfate with Stearic Acid as an Encouraging Carrier for Reindeer Bone Protein Extract
Materials 2011, 4(7), 1321-1332; doi:10.3390/ma4071321
Received: 1 June 2011 / Accepted: 19 June 2011 / Published: 21 July 2011
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Abstract
Various bone proteins and growth factors in specific concentrations are required for bone formation. If the body cannot produce sufficient quantities of these factors, bone trauma can be healed with an implant that includes the required factors in a carrier. This study [...] Read more.
Various bone proteins and growth factors in specific concentrations are required for bone formation. If the body cannot produce sufficient quantities of these factors, bone trauma can be healed with an implant that includes the required factors in a carrier. This study was designed to evaluate various calcium salt candidates that can be used as carrier with reindeer bone protein extract to induce ectopic bone formation in the muscle pouch model of mouse. The bone protein extract was either impregnated into the disc form of carrier or mixed with carrier powder before implantation. The radiographic analysis indicated increased bone formation in all of the active groups containing the bone protein extract compared to the controls within 21 days follow-up. The highest bone formation was seen in the group with calcium sulfate with stearic acid where new bone and calcified cartilage were clearly visible. The greatest bone formation occurred in the groups that had bone protein extract readily available. This indicates that the bone forming factors in sufficient concentrations are required at the early stage of bone formation. The calcium sulfate with stearic acid was the most suitable and effective carrier for reindeer bone protein extract. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Biomaterials)
Figures

Open AccessArticle In Vivo Corrosion of Two Novel Magnesium Alloys ZEK100 and AX30 and Their Mechanical Suitability as Biodegradable Implants
Materials 2011, 4(6), 1144-1167; doi:10.3390/ma4061144
Received: 17 May 2011 / Accepted: 15 June 2011 / Published: 21 June 2011
Cited by 25 | PDF Full-text (687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In magnesium alloys, the components used modify the alloy properties. For magnesium implants in contact with bone, rare earths alloys are commonly examined. These were shown to have a higher corrosion resistance than other alloys and a high mechanical strength, but their [...] Read more.
In magnesium alloys, the components used modify the alloy properties. For magnesium implants in contact with bone, rare earths alloys are commonly examined. These were shown to have a higher corrosion resistance than other alloys and a high mechanical strength, but their exact composition is hard to predict. Therefore a reduction of their content could be favorable. The alloys ZEK100 and AX30 have a reduced content or contain no rare earths at all. The aim of the study was to investigate their in vivo degradation and to assess the suitability of the in vivo µCT for the examination of their corrosion. Implants were inserted in rabbit tibiae. Clinical examinations, X-rays and in vivo µCT scans were done regularly. Afterwards implants were analyzed with REM, electron dispersive X-ray (EDX), weighing and mechanical testing. The in vivo µCT is of great advantage, because it allows a quantification of the corrosion rate and qualitative 3D assessment of the corrosion morphology. The location of the implant has a remarkable effect on the corrosion rate. Due to its mechanical characteristics and its corrosion behavior, ZEK100 was judged to be suitable, while AX30, which displays favorable degradation behavior, has too little mechanical strength for applications in weight bearing bones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Biomaterials)

Review

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Open AccessReview Biodegradable Orthopedic Magnesium-Calcium (MgCa) Alloys, Processing, and Corrosion Performance
Materials 2012, 5(1), 135-155; doi:10.3390/ma5010135
Received: 7 September 2011 / Revised: 21 November 2011 / Accepted: 2 December 2011 / Published: 9 January 2012
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (1965 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnesium-Calcium (Mg-Ca) alloy has received considerable attention as an emerging biodegradable implant material in orthopedic fixation applications. The biodegradable Mg-Ca alloys avoid stress shielding and secondary surgery inherent with permanent metallic implant materials. They also provide sufficient mechanical strength in load carrying [...] Read more.
Magnesium-Calcium (Mg-Ca) alloy has received considerable attention as an emerging biodegradable implant material in orthopedic fixation applications. The biodegradable Mg-Ca alloys avoid stress shielding and secondary surgery inherent with permanent metallic implant materials. They also provide sufficient mechanical strength in load carrying applications as opposed to biopolymers. However, the key issue facing a biodegradable Mg-Ca implant is the fast corrosion in the human body environment. The ability to adjust degradation rate of Mg-Ca alloys is critical for the successful development of biodegradable orthopedic implants. This paper focuses on the functions and requirements of bone implants and critical issues of current implant biomaterials. Microstructures and mechanical properties of Mg-Ca alloys, and the unique properties of novel magnesium-calcium implant materials have been reviewed. Various manufacturing techniques to process Mg-Ca based alloys have been analyzed regarding their impacts on implant performance. Corrosion performance of Mg-Ca alloys processed by different manufacturing techniques was compared. In addition, the societal and economical impacts of developing biodegradable orthopedic implants have been emphasized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Biomaterials)
Open AccessReview Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Combination with Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering
Materials 2011, 4(10), 1793-1804; doi:10.3390/ma4101793
Received: 27 July 2011 / Accepted: 16 August 2011 / Published: 11 October 2011
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This article reviews past and current strategies of the use of bone graft substitutes along with the future biologic alternatives that can enhance the functional capabilities of those grafts. Many of these bone graft substitute alternatives include ceramic-based, allograft-based, factor-based and polymer-based [...] Read more.
This article reviews past and current strategies of the use of bone graft substitutes along with the future biologic alternatives that can enhance the functional capabilities of those grafts. Many of these bone graft substitute alternatives include ceramic-based, allograft-based, factor-based and polymer-based whereas others are cell-based. The ways of achieving the goal of tissue engineering using stem cells and their lineage to regenerate tissue have been detailed with regard to both the generation of sufficient vascular invasion of the tissue to improve oxygen and nutrient supply, and the development of innovative physical/chemical stimuli to induce bone formation with the proper biomaterial to carry the cells. It is imperative to integrate basic polymer science with molecular biology and stem cell biology, in the design of new materials that perform very sophisticated signaling needed for integration and function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Orthopaedic Biomaterials)

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