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Calcium Sulfate with Stearic Acid as an Encouraging Carrier for Reindeer Bone Protein Extract
Division of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oulu University Hospital, FIN-90014 University of Oulu, Finland
Department of Medical Technology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Oulu, FIN-90014 University of Oulu, Finland
BBS—Bioactive Bone Substitutes Ltd, FIN-90220 Oulu, Finland
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute of Diagnostics, Oulu University Hospital, FIN-90014 University of Oulu, Finland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2011; in revised form: / Accepted: 19 June 2011 / Published: 21 July 2011
Abstract: Various bone proteins and growth factors in specific concentrations are required for bone formation. If the body cannot produce sufficient quantities of these factors, bone trauma can be healed with an implant that includes the required factors in a carrier. This study was designed to evaluate various calcium salt candidates that can be used as carrier with reindeer bone protein extract to induce ectopic bone formation in the muscle pouch model of mouse. The bone protein extract was either impregnated into the disc form of carrier or mixed with carrier powder before implantation. The radiographic analysis indicated increased bone formation in all of the active groups containing the bone protein extract compared to the controls within 21 days follow-up. The highest bone formation was seen in the group with calcium sulfate with stearic acid where new bone and calcified cartilage were clearly visible. The greatest bone formation occurred in the groups that had bone protein extract readily available. This indicates that the bone forming factors in sufficient concentrations are required at the early stage of bone formation. The calcium sulfate with stearic acid was the most suitable and effective carrier for reindeer bone protein extract.
Keywords: bone protein extract; bone trauma; calcium salt; carrier; growth factor
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MDPI and ACS Style
Tölli, H.; Birr, E.; Sandström, K.; Jämsä, T.; Jalovaara, P. Calcium Sulfate with Stearic Acid as an Encouraging Carrier for Reindeer Bone Protein Extract. Materials 2011, 4, 1321-1332.
Tölli H, Birr E, Sandström K, Jämsä T, Jalovaara P. Calcium Sulfate with Stearic Acid as an Encouraging Carrier for Reindeer Bone Protein Extract. Materials. 2011; 4(7):1321-1332.
Tölli, Hanna; Birr, Elli; Sandström, Kenneth; Jämsä, Timo; Jalovaara, Pekka. 2011. "Calcium Sulfate with Stearic Acid as an Encouraging Carrier for Reindeer Bone Protein Extract." Materials 4, no. 7: 1321-1332.