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Special Issue "NMR in Materials Science"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Ulrich Scheler (Website)

Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e.V. Hohe Strasse 6, D-01069 Dresden, Germany
Fax: +49 351 4658 231
Interests: polyelectrolytes, polyelectrolyte complexes and polyelectrolyte multilayers, counterion condensation, complex polymer systems, NMR.

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nuclear magnetic resonance is a versatile tool for the characterization of structure, order an dynamics. The strength of NMR comes from the local nature of the underlying interactions and its high selectivity. Therefore it is equally suited for highly ordered and disordered materials or amorphous materials. Methods are equally applicable to organic and inorganic materials or even organic-inorganic hybrid materials. Numerical methods play an increasing role in the design of new pulse sequences, excitation and decoupling schemes. The combination with the calculation of NMR parameters from quantum chemical calculations permits structure refinement and the so-called NMR crystallography. Recent developments aim for improvement of resolution and sensitivity. The improvements in sensitivity enable new experiments, which had not at all been considered. This special issue will provide the opportunity to present both the latest methods developments and exciting applications.

Dr. Ulrich Scheler
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • NMR in materials science
  • high-resolution solid-state NMR
  • structure determination
  • NMR crystallography
  • relaxometry
  • molecular dynamics

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Molecular Dynamics of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Intercalated in Clay, Studied Using 13C Solid-State NMR
Materials 2013, 6(1), 47-64; doi:10.3390/ma6010047
Received: 29 October 2012 / Revised: 3 December 2012 / Accepted: 5 December 2012 / Published: 21 December 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1791 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, Cross-Polarization Magic-angle Spinning CP/MAS, 2D Exchange, Centerband-Only Detection of Exchange (CODEX), and Separated-Local-Field (SLF) NMR experiments were used to study the molecular dynamics of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) inside Hectorite/PEG intercalation compounds in both single- and double-layer configurations. The results [...] Read more.
In this study, Cross-Polarization Magic-angle Spinning CP/MAS, 2D Exchange, Centerband-Only Detection of Exchange (CODEX), and Separated-Local-Field (SLF) NMR experiments were used to study the molecular dynamics of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) inside Hectorite/PEG intercalation compounds in both single- and double-layer configurations. The results revealed that the overall amplitude of the motions of the PEG chain in the single-layer configuration is considerably smaller than that observed for the double-layer intercalation compound. This result indicates that the effect of having the polymer chain interacting with both clay platelets is to produce a substantial decrease in the motional amplitudes of those chains. The presence of these dynamically restricted segments might be explained by the presence of anchoring points between the clay platelets and the PEG oxygen atoms, which was induced by the Na+ cations. By comparing the PEG motional amplitudes of the double-layered nanocomposites composed of polymers with different molecular weights, a decrease in the motional amplitude for the smaller PEG chain was observed, which might also be understood using the presence of anchoring points. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR in Materials Science)
Open AccessArticle The Surface of Nanoparticle Silicon as Studied by Solid-State NMR
Materials 2013, 6(1), 18-46; doi:10.3390/ma6010018
Received: 17 October 2012 / Revised: 20 November 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published: 20 December 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The surface structure and adjacent interior of commercially available silicon nanopowder (np-Si) was studied using multinuclear, solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The results are consistent with an overall picture in which the bulk of the np-Si interior consists of highly ordered [...] Read more.
The surface structure and adjacent interior of commercially available silicon nanopowder (np-Si) was studied using multinuclear, solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The results are consistent with an overall picture in which the bulk of the np-Si interior consists of highly ordered (“crystalline”) silicon atoms, each bound tetrahedrally to four other silicon atoms. From a combination of 1H, 29Si and 2H magic-angle-spinning (MAS) NMR results and quantum mechanical 29Si chemical shift calculations, silicon atoms on the surface of “as-received” np-Si were found to exist in a variety of chemical structures, with apparent populations in the order (a) (Si–O–)3Si–H > (b) (Si–O–)3SiOH > (c) (HO–)nSi(Si)m(–OSi)4−mn ≈ (d) (Si–O–)2Si(H)OH > (e) (Si–O–)2Si(–OH)2 > (f) (Si–O–)4Si, where Si stands for a surface silicon atom and Si represents another silicon atom that is attached to Si by either a SiSi bond or a Si–O–Si linkage. The relative populations of each of these structures can be modified by chemical treatment, including with O2 gas at elevated temperature. A deliberately oxidized sample displays an increased population of (Si–O–)3Si–H, as well as (Si–O–)3SiOH sites. Considerable heterogeneity of some surface structures was observed. A combination of 1H and 2H MAS experiments provide evidence for a substantial population of silanol (Si–OH) moieties, some of which are not readily H-exchangeable, along with the dominant Si–H sites, on the surface of “as-received” np-Si; the silanol moieties are enhanced by deliberate oxidation. An extension of the DEPTH background suppression method is also demonstrated that permits measurement of the T2 relaxation parameter simultaneously with background suppression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR in Materials Science)
Open AccessArticle Pressure Dependence of 15N Chemical Shifts in Model Peptides Ac-Gly-Gly-X-Ala-NH2
Materials 2012, 5(10), 1774-1786; doi:10.3390/ma5101774
Received: 25 July 2012 / Revised: 21 August 2012 / Accepted: 11 September 2012 / Published: 27 September 2012
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (428 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High pressure NMR spectroscopy has developed into an important tool for studying conformational equilibria of proteins in solution. We have studied the amide proton and nitrogen chemical shifts of the 20 canonical amino acids X in the random-coil model peptide Ac-Gly-Gly-X-Ala-NH2 [...] Read more.
High pressure NMR spectroscopy has developed into an important tool for studying conformational equilibria of proteins in solution. We have studied the amide proton and nitrogen chemical shifts of the 20 canonical amino acids X in the random-coil model peptide Ac-Gly-Gly-X-Ala-NH2, in a pressure range from 0.1 to 200 MPa, at a proton resonance frequency of 800 MHz. The obtained data allowed the determination of first and second order pressure coefficients with high accuracy at 283 K and pH 6.7. The mean first and second order pressure coefficients and for nitrogen are 2.91 ppm/GPa and −2.32 ppm/GPa2, respectively. The corresponding values and for the amide protons are 0.52 ppm/GPa and −0.41 ppm/GPa2. Residual dependent 1J1H15N-coupling constants are shown. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR in Materials Science)
Open AccessArticle Hyperpolarized Xenon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) of Building Stone Materials
Materials 2012, 5(9), 1722-1739; doi:10.3390/ma5091722
Received: 12 July 2012 / Revised: 27 August 2012 / Accepted: 14 September 2012 / Published: 24 September 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1039 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We have investigated several building stone materials, including minerals and rocks, using continuous flow hyperpolarized xenon (CF-HP) NMR spectroscopy to probe the surface composition and porosity. Chemical shift and line width values are consistent with petrographic information. Rare upfield shifts were measured [...] Read more.
We have investigated several building stone materials, including minerals and rocks, using continuous flow hyperpolarized xenon (CF-HP) NMR spectroscopy to probe the surface composition and porosity. Chemical shift and line width values are consistent with petrographic information. Rare upfield shifts were measured and attributed to the presence of transition metal cations on the surface. The evolution of freshly cleaved rocks exposed to the atmosphere was also characterized. The CF-HP 129Xe NMR technique is non-destructive and it could complement currently used techniques, like porosimetry and microscopy, providing additional information on the chemical nature of the rock surface and its evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR in Materials Science)
Open AccessArticle Heterogeneous Coordination Environments in Lithium-Neutralized Ionomers Identified Using 1H and 7Li MAS NMR
Materials 2012, 5(8), 1508-1527; doi:10.3390/ma5081508
Received: 29 June 2012 / Revised: 14 August 2012 / Accepted: 17 August 2012 / Published: 23 August 2012
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (868 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The carboxylic acid proton and the lithium coordination environments for precise and random Li-neutralized polyethylene acrylic acid P(E-AA) ionomers were explored using high speed solid-state 1H and 7Li MAS NMR. While the 7Li NMR revealed only a single Li [...] Read more.
The carboxylic acid proton and the lithium coordination environments for precise and random Li-neutralized polyethylene acrylic acid P(E-AA) ionomers were explored using high speed solid-state 1H and 7Li MAS NMR. While the 7Li NMR revealed only a single Li coordination environment, the chemical shift temperature variation was dependent on the precise or random nature of the P(E-AA) ionomer. The 1H MAS NMR revealed two different carboxylic acid proton environments in these materials. By utilizing 1H-7Li rotational echo double resonance (REDOR) MAS NMR experiments, it was demonstrated that the proton environments correspond to different average 1H-7Li distances, with the majority of the protonated carboxylic acids having a close through space contact with the Li. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the shortest 1H-7Li distance corresponds to un-neutralized carboxylic acids directly involved in the coordination environment of Li clusters. These solid-state NMR results show that heterogeneous structural motifs need to be included when developing descriptions of these ionomer materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR in Materials Science)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Recent Advances in Characterization of Lignin Polymer by Solution-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Methodology
Materials 2013, 6(1), 359-391; doi:10.3390/ma6010359
Received: 22 October 2012 / Revised: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 18 January 2013 / Published: 23 January 2013
Cited by 75 | PDF Full-text (4225 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The demand for efficient utilization of biomass induces a detailed analysis of the fundamental chemical structures of biomass, especially the complex structures of lignin polymers, which have long been recognized for their negative impact on biorefinery. Traditionally, it has been attempted to [...] Read more.
The demand for efficient utilization of biomass induces a detailed analysis of the fundamental chemical structures of biomass, especially the complex structures of lignin polymers, which have long been recognized for their negative impact on biorefinery. Traditionally, it has been attempted to reveal the complicated and heterogeneous structure of lignin by a series of chemical analyses, such as thioacidolysis (TA), nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO), and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC). Recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology undoubtedly have made solution-state NMR become the most widely used technique in structural characterization of lignin due to its versatility in illustrating structural features and structural transformations of lignin polymers. As one of the most promising diagnostic tools, NMR provides unambiguous evidence for specific structures as well as quantitative structural information. The recent advances in two-dimensional solution-state NMR techniques for structural analysis of lignin in isolated and whole cell wall states (in situ), as well as their applications are reviewed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR in Materials Science)
Open AccessReview Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy of Metal–Organic Framework Compounds (MOFs)
Materials 2012, 5(12), 2537-2572; doi:10.3390/ma5122537
Received: 10 October 2012 / Revised: 13 November 2012 / Accepted: 20 November 2012 / Published: 28 November 2012
Cited by 37 | PDF Full-text (2414 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well-established method for the investigation of various types of porous materials. During the past decade, metal–organic frameworks have attracted increasing research interest. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has rapidly evolved into an important tool for the study [...] Read more.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a well-established method for the investigation of various types of porous materials. During the past decade, metal–organic frameworks have attracted increasing research interest. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy has rapidly evolved into an important tool for the study of the structure, dynamics and flexibility of these materials, as well as for the characterization of host–guest interactions with adsorbed species such as xenon, carbon dioxide, water, and many others. The present review introduces and highlights recent developments in this rapidly growing field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue NMR in Materials Science)
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