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Recent Advances in Characterization of Lignin Polymer by Solution-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Methodology
Beijing key laboratory of lignocellulosic chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100000, China
State Key Laboratory of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510000, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 October 2012; in revised form: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 18 January 2013 / Published: 23 January 2013
Abstract: The demand for efficient utilization of biomass induces a detailed analysis of the fundamental chemical structures of biomass, especially the complex structures of lignin polymers, which have long been recognized for their negative impact on biorefinery. Traditionally, it has been attempted to reveal the complicated and heterogeneous structure of lignin by a series of chemical analyses, such as thioacidolysis (TA), nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO), and derivatization followed by reductive cleavage (DFRC). Recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technology undoubtedly have made solution-state NMR become the most widely used technique in structural characterization of lignin due to its versatility in illustrating structural features and structural transformations of lignin polymers. As one of the most promising diagnostic tools, NMR provides unambiguous evidence for specific structures as well as quantitative structural information. The recent advances in two-dimensional solution-state NMR techniques for structural analysis of lignin in isolated and whole cell wall states (in situ), as well as their applications are reviewed.
Keywords: lignin; solution-state NMR; quantitative heteronuclear-single-quantum-coherence spectra (HSQC); in situ characterization
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Wen, J.-L.; Sun, S.-L.; Xue, B.-L.; Sun, R.-C. Recent Advances in Characterization of Lignin Polymer by Solution-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Methodology. Materials 2013, 6, 359-391.
Wen J-L, Sun S-L, Xue B-L, Sun R-C. Recent Advances in Characterization of Lignin Polymer by Solution-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Methodology. Materials. 2013; 6(1):359-391.
Wen, Jia-Long; Sun, Shao-Long; Xue, Bai-Liang; Sun, Run-Cang. 2013. "Recent Advances in Characterization of Lignin Polymer by Solution-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Methodology." Materials 6, no. 1: 359-391.