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Special Issue "Nanotoxicology"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2012)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Andrea Haase

Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, Max-Dohrn-Strasse 8-10, 10589 Berlin, Germany
E-Mail
Fax: +49 030 8412 3763
Interests: metal and metal oxide nanoparticles; nanotoxicity of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles; oxidative stress; protein modifications by oxidative stress; proteomics; neurotoxicity; in vitro assays; visualisation methods for nanoparticles in biological material; in situ analtics for nanoparticles; nanoparticle protein corona
Guest Editor
Dr. Yuewei Zhao

DNA lab, Bio-Synthesis, Inc, 612 E Main street, Lewisville, TX 75057, USA
E-Mail
Phone: +1 972 420 8505
Fax: +1 972 420 0442
Interests: xenobiotic phototoxicity; hepatotoxicity and tumorigenicity; DNA or protein adducts; synthesis & characterization DNA/RNA/LNA/PNA; PDT (Photodynamic therapy); cyclodextrins

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Investigation of the toxicity of nanomaterials is defined as “nanotoxicology”, which came into being with the occurrence of term “nanomaterial”. Compared to their large counterparts, nanoparticles (< 100 nm) have higher chemical reactivity and bioactivity, better solubility, readiness to gain entry to biological membrane and human body, due to their quantum size effects and surface area to volume ratios. Some nanoparticles, naturally and non-naturally occurring, are known to be dangerous to human or environment and cause pathogenic effects such as oxidative stress, overload of body's phagocytes, inflammation, damages to protein and DNA, DNA mutation. Along with the worldwide development and application of nanomaterials, the concern of nanoparticles to human health safety is mounting. However, there is no authority to regulate nanoparticles to date because of the diversity and structural complexity of nanomaterials.

In this special issue, we focus on the deleterious biological effects of nanomaterials (i.e. nano-C60, carbon nanotubes, nanoparticles of metal and metaloxides, nanoparticles dispersing in atmosphere, lab-prepared functionalized nanoparticles). This issue invites papers ranging from cell toxicity, hepatotoxicity, pneumotoxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, immunogenicity to the occupation and population as well as controlled clinical study of nanoparticles.

Dr. Andrea Haase
Dr. Yuewei Zhao
Guest Editors

Keywords

  • ROS generation
  • DNA mutation
  • immunogenicity
  • neurotoxicity
  • Nano-C60
  • environmental toxicology
  • carbon nanotube
  • metaloxides

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Towards a Consensus View on Understanding Nanomaterials Hazards and Managing Exposure: Knowledge Gaps and Recommendations
Materials 2013, 6(3), 1090-1117; doi:10.3390/ma6031090
Received: 11 January 2013 / Revised: 21 February 2013 / Accepted: 28 February 2013 / Published: 20 March 2013
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (122 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this article is to present an overview of salient issues of exposure, characterisation and hazard assessment of nanomaterials as they emerged from the consensus-building of experts undertaken within the four year European Commission coordination project NanoImpactNet. The approach adopted is
[...] Read more.
The aim of this article is to present an overview of salient issues of exposure, characterisation and hazard assessment of nanomaterials as they emerged from the consensus-building of experts undertaken within the four year European Commission coordination project NanoImpactNet. The approach adopted is to consolidate and condense the findings and problem-identification in such a way as to identify knowledge-gaps and generate a set of interim recommendations of use to industry, regulators, research bodies and funders. The categories of recommendation arising from the consensual view address: significant gaps in vital factual knowledge of exposure, characterisation and hazards; the development, dissemination and standardisation of appropriate laboratory protocols; address a wide range of technical issues in establishing an adequate risk assessment platform; the more efficient and coordinated gathering of basic data; greater inter-organisational cooperation; regulatory harmonization; the wider use of the life-cycle approaches; and the wider involvement of all stakeholders in the discussion and solution-finding efforts for nanosafety. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
Open AccessArticle Pulmonary Inflammation of Well-Dispersed Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Following Intratracheal Instillation: Toxicity by Fiber of 1–5 µm in Length
Materials 2012, 5(12), 2833-2849; doi:10.3390/ma5122833
Received: 3 September 2012 / Revised: 9 November 2012 / Accepted: 11 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The pulmonary toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were examined by intratracheal instillation. We prepared a well-dispersed MWCNT dispersion including MWCNTs of 3.71 µm geometric average length. The fiber length of most of the MWCNTs in the dispersion was 10 µm or less.
[...] Read more.
The pulmonary toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were examined by intratracheal instillation. We prepared a well-dispersed MWCNT dispersion including MWCNTs of 3.71 µm geometric average length. The fiber length of most of the MWCNTs in the dispersion was 10 µm or less. The MWCNT dispersion was administered to rat lung by single intratracheal instillation at doses of 0.2 mg and 0.6 mg/rat. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected at 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after instillation. The influences of the longer MWCNTs on the induction of inflammation and oxidative stress were examined by the number of neutrophils, cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1), CINC-2, CINC-3 and HO-1 in the BALF. Additionally, ho-1 gene expression in the lung was examined. The intratracheal instillation of MWCNT induced transient inflammation dose dependently in the lung. The number of neutrophils was highest at 3 days after instillation and then decreased. However, the neutrophils in the MWCNT administered animals tended to be higher than in the control group until 3 months after instillation. The CINC-1 and CINC-2 concentrations in the BALF increased at 1 month after instillation. There were no significant differences in CINC-3 and HO-1 between the MWCNT administered animals and the control animals. These results revealed that the MWCNTs of 1–10 µm in length induced persistent inflammation in rat lung. There were no remarkable differences between the MWCNTs in the present study and previously reported, shorter MWCNTs prepared from “the same” raw MWCNT material. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
Open AccessArticle In Vivo Toxicity of Intravenously Administered Silica and Silicon Nanoparticles
Materials 2012, 5(10), 1873-1889; doi:10.3390/ma5101873
Received: 3 August 2012 / Revised: 17 September 2012 / Accepted: 10 October 2012 / Published: 16 October 2012
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (777 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Both silicon and silica nanoparticles (SiNPs and SiO2NPs, respectively) are currently considered to be promising carriers for targeted drug delivery. However, the available data on their in vivo toxicity are limited. The present study was aimed at investigation of SiNP and
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Both silicon and silica nanoparticles (SiNPs and SiO2NPs, respectively) are currently considered to be promising carriers for targeted drug delivery. However, the available data on their in vivo toxicity are limited. The present study was aimed at investigation of SiNP and SiO2NP (mean diameter 10 and 13 nm, respectively) toxicity using both morphological and functional criteria. Hematological and biochemical parameters were assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats 5, 21 and 60 days after administration of NPs. Inner ear function was determined using otoacoustic emission testing at 21 and 60 days after infusion of NPs. Furthermore, the histological structure of liver, spleen and kidney samples was analyzed. Intravenous infusion of SiNPs or SiO2NPs (7 mg/kg) was not associated with significant changes in hemodynamic parameters. Hearing function remained unchanged over the entire observation period. Both inter- and intragroup changes in blood counts and biochemical markers were non-significant. Histological findings included the appearance of foreign body-type granulomas in the liver and spleen as well as microgranulation in the liver after administration of NPs. The number of granulomas was significantly lower after administration of SiNPs compared with SiO2NPs. In conclusion, both tested types of NPs are relatively biocompatible nanomaterials, at least when considering acute toxicity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
Open AccessArticle Early Combination of Material Characteristics and Toxicology Is Useful in the Design of Low Toxicity Carbon Nanofiber
Materials 2012, 5(9), 1560-1580; doi:10.3390/ma5091560
Received: 20 June 2012 / Revised: 20 August 2012 / Accepted: 27 August 2012 / Published: 3 September 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1638 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes an approach for the early combination of material characterization and toxicology testing in order to design carbon nanofiber (CNF) with low toxicity. The aim was to investigate how the adjustment of production parameters and purification procedures can result in a
[...] Read more.
This paper describes an approach for the early combination of material characterization and toxicology testing in order to design carbon nanofiber (CNF) with low toxicity. The aim was to investigate how the adjustment of production parameters and purification procedures can result in a CNF product with low toxicity. Different CNF batches from a pilot plant were characterized with respect to physical properties (chemical composition, specific surface area, morphology, surface chemistry) as well as toxicity by in vitro and in vivo tests. A description of a test battery for both material characterization and toxicity is given. The results illustrate how the adjustment of production parameters and purification, thermal treatment in particular, influence the material characterization as well as the outcome of the toxic tests. The combination of the tests early during product development is a useful and efficient approach when aiming at designing CNF with low toxicity. Early quality and safety characterization, preferably in an iterative process, is expected to be efficient and promising for this purpose. The toxicity tests applied are preliminary tests of low cost and rapid execution. For further studies, effects such as lung inflammation, fibrosis and respiratory cancer are recommended for the more in-depth studies of the mature CNF product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Mechanisms of Silver Nanoparticle Release, Transformation and Toxicity: A Critical Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations for Future Studies and Applications
Materials 2013, 6(6), 2295-2350; doi:10.3390/ma6062295
Received: 29 April 2013 / Accepted: 22 May 2013 / Published: 5 June 2013
Cited by 180 | PDF Full-text (1035 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nanosilver, due to its small particle size and enormous specific surface area, facilitates more rapid dissolution of ions than the equivalent bulk material; potentially leading to increased toxicity of nanosilver. This, coupled with their capacity to adsorb biomolecules and interact with biological receptors
[...] Read more.
Nanosilver, due to its small particle size and enormous specific surface area, facilitates more rapid dissolution of ions than the equivalent bulk material; potentially leading to increased toxicity of nanosilver. This, coupled with their capacity to adsorb biomolecules and interact with biological receptors can mean that nanoparticles can reach sub-cellular locations leading to potentially higher localized concentrations of ions once those particles start to dissolve or degrade in situ. Further complicating the story is the capacity for nanoparticles to generate reactive oxygen species, and to interact with, and potentially disturb the functioning of biomolecules such as proteins, enzymes and DNA. The fact that the nanoparticle size, shape, surface coating and a host of other factors contribute to these interactions, and that the particles themselves are evolving or ageing leads to further complications in terms of elucidating mechanisms of interaction and modes of action for silver nanoparticles, in contrast to dissolved silver species. This review aims to provide a critical assessment of the current understanding of silver nanoparticle toxicity, as well as to provide a set of pointers and guidelines for experimental design of future studies to assess the environmental and biological impacts of silver nanoparticles. In particular; in future we require a detailed description of the nanoparticles; their synthesis route and stabilisation mechanisms; their coating; and evolution and ageing under the exposure conditions of the assay. This would allow for comparison of data from different particles; different environmental or biological systems; and structure-activity or structure-property relationships to emerge as the basis for predictive toxicology. On the basis of currently available data; such comparisons or predictions are difficult; as the characterisation and time-resolved data is not available; and a full understanding of silver nanoparticle dissolution and ageing under different conditions is observed. Clear concerns are emerging regarding the overuse of nanosilver and the potential for bacterial resistance to develop. A significant conclusion includes the need for a risk—benefit analysis for all applications and eventually restrictions of the uses where a clear benefit cannot be demonstrated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
Open AccessReview The Toxic Effects and Mechanisms of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles
Materials 2012, 5(12), 2850-2871; doi:10.3390/ma5122850
Received: 1 August 2012 / Revised: 24 September 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Cited by 115 | PDF Full-text (898 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recent nanotechnological advances suggest that metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been expected to be used in various fields, ranging from catalysis and opto-electronic materials to sensors, environmental remediation, and biomedicine. However, the growing use of NPs has led to their release into environment
[...] Read more.
Recent nanotechnological advances suggest that metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been expected to be used in various fields, ranging from catalysis and opto-electronic materials to sensors, environmental remediation, and biomedicine. However, the growing use of NPs has led to their release into environment and the toxicity of metal oxide NPs on organisms has become a concern to both the public and scientists. Unfortunately, there are still widespread controversies and ambiguities with respect to the toxic effects and mechanisms of metal oxide NPs. Comprehensive understanding of their toxic effect is necessary to safely expand their use. In this review, we use CuO and ZnO NPs as examples to discuss how key factors such as size, surface characteristics, dissolution, and exposure routes mediate toxic effects, and we describe corresponding mechanisms, including oxidative stress, coordination effects and non-homeostasis effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)

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