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The Toxic Effects and Mechanisms of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles
Chinese Academy of Science Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100049, China
School of Life Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2012; in revised form: 24 September 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Abstract: Recent nanotechnological advances suggest that metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been expected to be used in various fields, ranging from catalysis and opto-electronic materials to sensors, environmental remediation, and biomedicine. However, the growing use of NPs has led to their release into environment and the toxicity of metal oxide NPs on organisms has become a concern to both the public and scientists. Unfortunately, there are still widespread controversies and ambiguities with respect to the toxic effects and mechanisms of metal oxide NPs. Comprehensive understanding of their toxic effect is necessary to safely expand their use. In this review, we use CuO and ZnO NPs as examples to discuss how key factors such as size, surface characteristics, dissolution, and exposure routes mediate toxic effects, and we describe corresponding mechanisms, including oxidative stress, coordination effects and non-homeostasis effects.
Keywords: CuO; ZnO; nanoparticles; toxic effect; size; solubility; exposure routes; oxidative stress; coordination effects; non-homeostasis effects
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MDPI and ACS Style
Chang, Y.-N.; Zhang, M.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Xing, G. The Toxic Effects and Mechanisms of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles. Materials 2012, 5, 2850-2871.
Chang Y-N, Zhang M, Xia L, Zhang J, Xing G. The Toxic Effects and Mechanisms of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles. Materials. 2012; 5(12):2850-2871.
Chang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Mingyi; Xia, Lin; Zhang, Jun; Xing, Gengmei. 2012. "The Toxic Effects and Mechanisms of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles." Materials 5, no. 12: 2850-2871.