Materials 2012, 5(12), 2850-2871; doi:10.3390/ma5122850
Review

The Toxic Effects and Mechanisms of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles

1,†email, 1,†email, 2email, 2,* email and 1,* email
Received: 1 August 2012; in revised form: 24 September 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Recent nanotechnological advances suggest that metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) have been expected to be used in various fields, ranging from catalysis and opto-electronic materials to sensors, environmental remediation, and biomedicine. However, the growing use of NPs has led to their release into environment and the toxicity of metal oxide NPs on organisms has become a concern to both the public and scientists. Unfortunately, there are still widespread controversies and ambiguities with respect to the toxic effects and mechanisms of metal oxide NPs. Comprehensive understanding of their toxic effect is necessary to safely expand their use. In this review, we use CuO and ZnO NPs as examples to discuss how key factors such as size, surface characteristics, dissolution, and exposure routes mediate toxic effects, and we describe corresponding mechanisms, including oxidative stress, coordination effects and non-homeostasis effects.
Keywords: CuO; ZnO; nanoparticles; toxic effect; size; solubility; exposure routes; oxidative stress; coordination effects; non-homeostasis effects
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, Y.-N.; Zhang, M.; Xia, L.; Zhang, J.; Xing, G. The Toxic Effects and Mechanisms of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles. Materials 2012, 5, 2850-2871.

AMA Style

Chang Y-N, Zhang M, Xia L, Zhang J, Xing G. The Toxic Effects and Mechanisms of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles. Materials. 2012; 5(12):2850-2871.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Mingyi; Xia, Lin; Zhang, Jun; Xing, Gengmei. 2012. "The Toxic Effects and Mechanisms of CuO and ZnO Nanoparticles." Materials 5, no. 12: 2850-2871.

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