Materials 2012, 5(12), 2833-2849; doi:10.3390/ma5122833
Article

Pulmonary Inflammation of Well-Dispersed Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Following Intratracheal Instillation: Toxicity by Fiber of 1–5 µm in Length

1 Institute of Industrial Ecological Sciences, University of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-Nishi, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 807-8555, Japan 2 Research Institute for Environmental Management Technology (EMTECH), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565, Japan 3 Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier (RIIF), AIST, 1-1-1, Umezono, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565, Japan 4 National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan, Kamiyoga 1-18-1, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan 5 School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health Japan, 1-1 Iseigaoka, Yahata-Nishi, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 807-8555, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 September 2012; in revised form: 9 November 2012 / Accepted: 11 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanotoxicology)
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Abstract: The pulmonary toxicity of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were examined by intratracheal instillation. We prepared a well-dispersed MWCNT dispersion including MWCNTs of 3.71 µm geometric average length. The fiber length of most of the MWCNTs in the dispersion was 10 µm or less. The MWCNT dispersion was administered to rat lung by single intratracheal instillation at doses of 0.2 mg and 0.6 mg/rat. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected at 3 days, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after instillation. The influences of the longer MWCNTs on the induction of inflammation and oxidative stress were examined by the number of neutrophils, cytokine induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 (CINC-1), CINC-2, CINC-3 and HO-1 in the BALF. Additionally, ho-1 gene expression in the lung was examined. The intratracheal instillation of MWCNT induced transient inflammation dose dependently in the lung. The number of neutrophils was highest at 3 days after instillation and then decreased. However, the neutrophils in the MWCNT administered animals tended to be higher than in the control group until 3 months after instillation. The CINC-1 and CINC-2 concentrations in the BALF increased at 1 month after instillation. There were no significant differences in CINC-3 and HO-1 between the MWCNT administered animals and the control animals. These results revealed that the MWCNTs of 1–10 µm in length induced persistent inflammation in rat lung. There were no remarkable differences between the MWCNTs in the present study and previously reported, shorter MWCNTs prepared from “the same” raw MWCNT material.
Keywords: multi-wall carbon nanotube; inflammation; chemokine; oxidative stress; fiber length

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MDPI and ACS Style

Horie, M.; Stowe, M.; Kambara, T.; Lee, B.W.; Endoh, S.; Maru, J.; Oyabu, T.; Myojo, T.; Ogami, A.; Uchida, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kobayashi, N.; Kuroda, E.; Nakazato, T.; Morimoto, Y. Pulmonary Inflammation of Well-Dispersed Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Following Intratracheal Instillation: Toxicity by Fiber of 1–5 µm in Length. Materials 2012, 5, 2833-2849.

AMA Style

Horie M, Stowe M, Kambara T, Lee BW, Endoh S, Maru J, Oyabu T, Myojo T, Ogami A, Uchida K, Yamamoto K, Kobayashi N, Kuroda E, Nakazato T, Morimoto Y. Pulmonary Inflammation of Well-Dispersed Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Following Intratracheal Instillation: Toxicity by Fiber of 1–5 µm in Length. Materials. 2012; 5(12):2833-2849.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Horie, Masanori; Stowe, Mayumi; Kambara, Tatsunori; Lee, Byeong W.; Endoh, Shigehisa; Maru, Junko; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Ogami, Akira; Uchida, Kunio; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Norihiro; Kuroda, Estushi; Nakazato, Tetsuya; Morimoto, Yasuo. 2012. "Pulmonary Inflammation of Well-Dispersed Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes Following Intratracheal Instillation: Toxicity by Fiber of 1–5 µm in Length." Materials 5, no. 12: 2833-2849.

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