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Special Issue "Photonic Materials and Applications"

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A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2012)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mitsuteru Inoue (Website)

Toyohashi University of Technology, Hibari-ga-oka 1-1, Tempaku, 441-8580, Toyohashi, Aichi, Japan
Interests: magnetics-based functional materials developments, such as magnetophotonic crystals, nano-composite materials, and their applications such as holographic data storage, optical switches, spatial light modulators, unwire SAW sensing system, 3D display
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Miguel Levy (Website)

Physics Department and Materials Science Department (Joint Appointment), Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931, USA
Interests: magneto-optics; photonic crystals; magneto-photonics; waveguide optics
Guest Editor
Dr. Bethanie J. Stadler (Website)

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
Interests: magnetic and photonics materials and devices, including thin film magnets, waveguides, amplifiers, and Faraday rotators, as well as nanostructures for spintronics, recording, acoustic resonators and neurological connects

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Photonic materials and devices play a critically important role in telecommunications, information processing and storage, chemical sensors, solar cells, light emitting diodes, magneto-optic memories, video systems, color imaging and other important applications. They encompass a wide variety of materials and material technologies including wide band-gap semiconductors, materials for magnetic data storage, diamond materials for extra-bright display screens, micro-materials for next-generation displays, semiconductor laser materials and more. Recent progress has led to spectacular advances in light flow and light-matter interaction control through photonic crystal technology, light trapping in thin films for solar cell applications, photonic crystal fibers, the control, understanding and application of light at the nanoscale through nanophotonics, controlling the flow of light below the diffraction limit, plasmonics and optical metamaterials. The discovery and development of new photonic materials has been and continues to play a vital role in the development of information technology, a critical technology in the 21st century. It has led to the development of semiconductor lasers, optical fibers and amplifiers central to high bandwidth telecommunications networks. The exploitation of new optical phenomena and the development of optical devices create opportunities for advances in optical memory storage, holographic and magneto-optic storage. Continued advances will depend on continued reduction in the cost of photonic components, increased functionality and increased levels of integration. In this special issue we aim at covering recent progress and novel trends in the fields of photonic materials and devices and invite experimental, theoretical, and computational papers ranging from basic research and new design ideas to novel materials, material structures and the development of advanced fabrication techniques, characterization methods and applications of photonic materials.

Prof. Dr. Miguel Levy
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • photonic materials
  • photonic devices
  • nanophotonics
  • optical metamaterials
  • plasmonics
  • information technology
  • magneto-optic storage
  • holographic memory
  • photonic crystals
  • optical fibers
  • magneto-photonic crystals

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Photonic Paint Developed with Metallic Three-Dimensional Photonic Crystals
Materials 2012, 5(7), 1196-1205; doi:10.3390/ma5071196
Received: 3 April 2012 / Revised: 25 May 2012 / Accepted: 19 June 2012 / Published: 2 July 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL) applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible [...] Read more.
This work details the design and simulation of an inconspicuous photonic paint that can be applied onto an object for anticounterfeit and tag, track, and locate (TTL) applications. The paint consists of three-dimensional metallic tilted woodpile photonic crystals embedded into a visible and infrared transparent polymer film, which can be applied to almost any surface. The tilted woodpile photonic crystals are designed with a specific pass band detectable at nearly all incident angles of light. When painted onto a surface, these crystals provide a unique reflective infra-red optical signature that can be easily observed and recorded to verify the location or contents of a package. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Materials and Applications)
Open AccessArticle Optical Isolator Utilizing Surface Plasmons
Materials 2012, 5(5), 857-871; doi:10.3390/ma5050857
Received: 30 March 2012 / Revised: 9 May 2012 / Accepted: 9 May 2012 / Published: 16 May 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Feasibility of usage of surface plasmons in a new design of an integrated optical isolator has been studied. In the case of surface plasmons propagating at a boundary between a transition metal and a double-layer dielectric, there is a significant difference of [...] Read more.
Feasibility of usage of surface plasmons in a new design of an integrated optical isolator has been studied. In the case of surface plasmons propagating at a boundary between a transition metal and a double-layer dielectric, there is a significant difference of optical loss for surface plasmons propagating in opposite directions. Utilizing this structure, it is feasible to fabricate a competitive plasmonic isolator, which benefits from a broad wavelength operational bandwidth and a good technological compatibility for integration into the Photonic Integrated Circuits (PIC). The linear dispersion relation was derived for plasmons propagating in a multilayer magneto-optical slab. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Materials and Applications)
Open AccessCommunication Diamond-Structured Photonic Crystals with Graded Air Spheres Radii
Materials 2012, 5(5), 851-856; doi:10.3390/ma5050851
Received: 5 March 2012 / Revised: 24 April 2012 / Accepted: 2 May 2012 / Published: 11 May 2012
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (388 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A diamond-structured photonic crystal (PC) with graded air spheres radii was fabricated successfully by stereolithography (SL) and gel-casting process. The graded radii in photonic crystal were formed by uniting different radii in photonic crystals with a uniform radius together along the Г‑Х [...] Read more.
A diamond-structured photonic crystal (PC) with graded air spheres radii was fabricated successfully by stereolithography (SL) and gel-casting process. The graded radii in photonic crystal were formed by uniting different radii in photonic crystals with a uniform radius together along the Г‑Х direction. The stop band was observed between 26.1 GHz and 34.3 GHz by reflection and transmission measurements in the direction. The result agreed well with the simulation attained by the Finite Integration Technique (FIT). The stop band width was 8.2 GHz and the resulting gap/midgap ratio was 27.2%, which became respectively 141.4% and 161.9% of the perfect PC. The results indicate that the stop band width of the diamond-structured PC can be expanded by graded air spheres radii along the Г‑Х direction, which is beneficial to develop a multi bandpass filter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Materials and Applications)
Open AccessArticle Aligned Layers of Silver Nano-Fibers
Materials 2012, 5(2), 239-247; doi:10.3390/ma5020239
Received: 5 January 2012 / Revised: 23 January 2012 / Accepted: 28 January 2012 / Published: 1 February 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We describe a new dichroic polarizers made by ordering silver nano-fibers to aligned layers. The aligned layers consist of nano-fibers and self-assembled molecular aggregates of lyotropic liquid crystals. Unidirectional alignment of the layers is achieved by means of mechanical shearing. Aligned layers [...] Read more.
We describe a new dichroic polarizers made by ordering silver nano-fibers to aligned layers. The aligned layers consist of nano-fibers and self-assembled molecular aggregates of lyotropic liquid crystals. Unidirectional alignment of the layers is achieved by means of mechanical shearing. Aligned layers of silver nano-fibers are partially transparent to a linearly polarized electromagnetic radiation. The unidirectional alignment and density of the silver nano-fibers determine degree of polarization of transmitted light. The aligned layers of silver nano-fibers might be used in optics, microwave applications, and organic electronics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Materials and Applications)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Magneto-Optical Thin Films for On-Chip Monolithic Integration of Non-Reciprocal Photonic Devices
Materials 2013, 6(11), 5094-5117; doi:10.3390/ma6115094
Received: 8 July 2013 / Revised: 9 September 2013 / Accepted: 6 October 2013 / Published: 8 November 2013
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (2090 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we [...] Read more.
Achieving monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on semiconductor substrates has been long sought by the photonics research society. One way to achieve this goal is to deposit high quality magneto-optical oxide thin films on a semiconductor substrate. In this paper, we review our recent research activity on magneto-optical oxide thin films toward the goal of monolithic integration of nonreciprocal photonic devices on silicon. We demonstrate high Faraday rotation at telecommunication wavelengths in several novel magnetooptical oxide thin films including Co substituted CeO2−δ, Co- or Fe-substituted SrTiO3−δ, as well as polycrystalline garnets on silicon. Figures of merit of 3~4 deg/dB and 21 deg/dB are achieved in epitaxial Sr(Ti0.2Ga0.4Fe0.4)O3−δ and polycrystalline (CeY2)Fe5O12 films, respectively. We also demonstrate an optical isolator on silicon, based on a racetrack resonator using polycrystalline (CeY2)Fe5O12/silicon strip-loaded waveguides. Our work demonstrates that physical vapor deposited magneto-optical oxide thin films on silicon can achieve high Faraday rotation, low optical loss and high magneto-optical figure of merit, therefore enabling novel high-performance non-reciprocal photonic devices monolithically integrated on semiconductor substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Materials and Applications)
Open AccessReview Formation of Degenerate Band Gaps in Layered Systems
Materials 2012, 5(6), 1055-1083; doi:10.3390/ma5061055
Received: 3 April 2012 / Revised: 30 May 2012 / Accepted: 31 May 2012 / Published: 7 June 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the review, peculiarities of spectra of one-dimensional photonic crystals made of anisotropic and/or magnetooptic materials are considered. The attention is focused on band gaps of a special type—the so called degenerate band gaps which are degenerate with respect to polarization. Mechanisms [...] Read more.
In the review, peculiarities of spectra of one-dimensional photonic crystals made of anisotropic and/or magnetooptic materials are considered. The attention is focused on band gaps of a special type—the so called degenerate band gaps which are degenerate with respect to polarization. Mechanisms of formation and properties of these band gaps are analyzed. Peculiarities of spectra of photonic crystals that arise due to the linkage between band gaps are discussed. Particularly, it is shown that formation of a frozen mode is caused by linkage between Brillouin and degenerate band gaps. Also, existence of the optical Borrmann effect at the boundaries of degenerate band gaps and optical Tamm states at the frequencies of degenerate band gaps are analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Materials and Applications)
Figures

Open AccessReview Direct Wafer Bonding and Its Application to Waveguide Optical Isolators
Materials 2012, 5(5), 985-1004; doi:10.3390/ma5050985
Received: 31 March 2012 / Revised: 18 May 2012 / Accepted: 21 May 2012 / Published: 24 May 2012
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (389 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the direct bonding technique focusing on the waveguide optical isolator application. A surface activated direct bonding technique is a powerful tool to realize a tight contact between dissimilar materials. This technique has the potential advantage that dissimilar materials are [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the direct bonding technique focusing on the waveguide optical isolator application. A surface activated direct bonding technique is a powerful tool to realize a tight contact between dissimilar materials. This technique has the potential advantage that dissimilar materials are bonded at low temperature, which enables one to avoid the issue associated with the difference in thermal expansion. Using this technique, a magneto-optic garnet is successfully bonded on silicon, III-V compound semiconductors and LiNbO3. As an application of this technique, waveguide optical isolators are investigated including an interferometric waveguide optical isolator and a semileaky waveguide optical isolator. The interferometric waveguide optical isolator that uses nonreciprocal phase shift is applicable to a variety of waveguide platforms. The low refractive index of buried oxide layer in a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide enhances the magneto-optic phase shift, which contributes to the size reduction of the isolator. A semileaky waveguide optical isolator has the advantage of large fabrication-tolerance as well as a wide operation wavelength range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Materials and Applications)
Open AccessReview Strained Silicon Photonics
Materials 2012, 5(5), 889-908; doi:10.3390/ma5050889
Received: 22 March 2012 / Revised: 9 May 2012 / Accepted: 9 May 2012 / Published: 22 May 2012
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (1622 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the [...] Read more.
A review of recent progress in the field of strained silicon photonics is presented. The application of strain to waveguide and photonic crystal structures can be used to alter the linear and nonlinear optical properties of these devices. Here, methods for the fabrication of strained devices are summarized and recent examples of linear and nonlinear optical devices are discussed. Furthermore, the relation between strain and the enhancement of the second order nonlinear susceptibility is investigated, which may enable the construction of optically active photonic devices made of silicon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Materials and Applications)
Open AccessReview Photonic Crystal Structure and Coloration of Wing Scales of Butterflies Exhibiting Selective Wavelength Iridescence
Materials 2012, 5(5), 754-771; doi:10.3390/ma5050754
Received: 21 March 2012 / Revised: 11 April 2012 / Accepted: 12 April 2012 / Published: 30 April 2012
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The coloration of butterflies that exhibit human visible iridescence from violet to green has been elucidated. Highly tilted multilayers of cuticle on the ridges, which were found in the scales of male S. charonda and E. mulciber butterflies, produce a limited-view, selective [...] Read more.
The coloration of butterflies that exhibit human visible iridescence from violet to green has been elucidated. Highly tilted multilayers of cuticle on the ridges, which were found in the scales of male S. charonda and E. mulciber butterflies, produce a limited-view, selective wavelength iridescence (ultraviolet (UV)~green) as a result of multiple interference between the cuticle-air layers. The iridescence from C. ataxus originates from multilayers in the groove plates between the ridges and ribs. The interference takes place between the top and bottom surfaces of each layer and incoherently between different layers. Consequently, the male with the layers that are ~270 nm thick reflects light of UV~560 nm (green) and the female with the layers that are ~191 nm thick reflects light of UV~400 nm (violet). T. aeacus does not produce the iridescent sheen which T. magellanus does. No iridescent sheen is ascribed to microrib layers, which are perpendicular to the scale plane, so that they cannot reflect any backscattering. The structures of these butterflies would provide us helpful hints to manipulate light in photoelectric devices, such as blue or UV LEDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photonic Materials and Applications)

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