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Photonic Crystal Structure and Coloration of Wing Scales of Butterflies Exhibiting Selective Wavelength Iridescence
Institute of Scientific Instruments of the ASCR, v.v.i., Královopolská 147, Brno 612 64, Czech Republic
Bioresources and Biodiversity Section, Central Laboratory and Greenhouse Complex, Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen Campus, Nakhonpathom 73140, Thailand
Kyoto Institute of Technology, Kyoto 606-8585, Japan
Present address: Sadovského 14, Brno 61200, Czech Republic.
Present address: 1-297 Wakiyama, Kyoto 618-0091, Japan.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 March 2012; in revised form: 11 April 2012 / Accepted: 12 April 2012 / Published: 30 April 2012
Abstract: The coloration of butterflies that exhibit human visible iridescence from violet to green has been elucidated. Highly tilted multilayers of cuticle on the ridges, which were found in the scales of male S. charonda and E. mulciber butterflies, produce a limited-view, selective wavelength iridescence (ultraviolet (UV)~green) as a result of multiple interference between the cuticle-air layers. The iridescence from C. ataxus originates from multilayers in the groove plates between the ridges and ribs. The interference takes place between the top and bottom surfaces of each layer and incoherently between different layers. Consequently, the male with the layers that are ~270 nm thick reflects light of UV~560 nm (green) and the female with the layers that are ~191 nm thick reflects light of UV~400 nm (violet). T. aeacus does not produce the iridescent sheen which T. magellanus does. No iridescent sheen is ascribed to microrib layers, which are perpendicular to the scale plane, so that they cannot reflect any backscattering. The structures of these butterflies would provide us helpful hints to manipulate light in photoelectric devices, such as blue or UV LEDs.
Keywords: butterfly scale; structure color; natural photonic crystal; E. mulciber; S. charonda; C. ataxus; T. aeacus
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Mika, F.; Matějková-Plšková, J.; Jiwajinda, S.; Dechkrong, P.; Shiojiri, M. Photonic Crystal Structure and Coloration of Wing Scales of Butterflies Exhibiting Selective Wavelength Iridescence. Materials 2012, 5, 754-771.
Mika F, Matějková-Plšková J, Jiwajinda S, Dechkrong P, Shiojiri M. Photonic Crystal Structure and Coloration of Wing Scales of Butterflies Exhibiting Selective Wavelength Iridescence. Materials. 2012; 5(5):754-771.
Mika, Filip; Matějková-Plšková, Jiřina; Jiwajinda, Suratwadee; Dechkrong, Punyavee; Shiojiri, Makoto. 2012. "Photonic Crystal Structure and Coloration of Wing Scales of Butterflies Exhibiting Selective Wavelength Iridescence." Materials 5, no. 5: 754-771.